Children in the Holocaust

“Children are not the people of tomorrow, but are people of today. They have a right to be taken seriously, and to be treated with tenderness and respect. They should be allowed to grow into whoever they were meant to be. 'The unknown person' inside of them is our hope for the future.” Janusz Korczak

Approximately one and a half million children were murdered in the Holocaust. Few survived. "Children in the Holocaust" features children's toys, games, artworks, diaries and albums as well as testimonies from survivors who share their childhood experiences from before, during and immediately after the Holocaust.

Ernest (Ernie) Meyer. "The Last Goodbye", 1939
Ernest (Ernie) Meyer
The Last Goodbye, 1939
Art
“The Last Goodbye”, 1939 depicts Ernest (Ernie) Meyer's separation from his family during the Kindertransport. Ernest, his sister Eva and brother Paul survived the Holocaust. Their parents, Gustav and Johanna, were arrested and deported to Westerbork transit camp and from there to Auschwitz on July 12, 1942 where they were murdered. Read more >>>
Toy boat sent from the Pithiviers camp to Jean Pojzman in Boulogne-Billancourt, France
Toy boat sent from the Pithiviers camp to Jean Pojzman in Boulogne-Billancourt, France
Toy boat sent from the Pithiviers camp to ten-year-old Jean Pojzman in Boulogne-Billancourt, France. Jean, his mother Esther and sister Rachel were sent to the Drancy detention camp. On 21 August 1942, all three of them were deported to Auschwitz on Convoy #22, and murdered. Read more >>>
Lore Stern's doll Inge, dressed in the pajamas Lore wore when she went into hiding during Kristallnacht
Lore Stern's doll Inge, dressed in the pajamas Lore wore when she went into hiding during Kristallnacht
Lore Stern's doll Inge, dressed in the pajamas Lore wore when she went into hiding during Kristallnacht. Read more >>>
The teddy bear belongs to Fred Lessing, a child survivor of the Holocaust
The teddy bear belongs to Fred Lessing, a child survivor of the Holocaust
The teddy bear belongs to Fred Lessing, a child survivor of the Holocaust. Fred was hidden by a Christian family during the war and the teddy bear became his closest friend, his confidante and source of comfort. After the war the teddy bear remained with Fred Lessing, until he agreed to lend it to Yad Vashem. Read more >>>
Stefa Fromer (left) and Jasia Gandz (right) in the children home in Otwock, Poland, after the war
Stefa Fromer (left) and Jasia Gandz (right) in the children home in Otwock, Poland, after the war
Stefa Fromer (left) and Jasia Gandz (right) in the children home in Otwock, Poland, after the war. Jasia Gandz was the second child to arrive in the home. By June 1945 approximately 130 child survivors were living in the home. Most of the educators and staff were also Holocaust survivors, who saw in their work a sense of mission and destiny, an answer to the loss they had experienced in the Holocaust.
Janusz Korczak with the orchestra of the children’s home in Warsaw
Janusz Korczak with the orchestra of the children’s home in Warsaw
Janusz Korczak with the orchestra of the childrens home in Warsaw. Janusz Korczak was the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit, a renowned Polish-born doctor, author and educator. Korczak dedicated his life to caring for children, particularly orphans. Despite offers from Polish friends to hide him on the "Aryan" side of the city, Korczak refused to abandon the children and was deported together with them.
Jiri Bader's Bar Mitzvah Album
Jiri Bader's Bar Mitzvah Album
An Album from the Terezin Ghetto
The album that Jiri Bader's friends made for him on the occasion of his Bar Mitzvah, which he celebrated in the Theresienstadt ghetto. The album was illustrated by caricaturist Max Placek, a relative of Jiri's, who came from Jiri's home town of Kyjov, in Czechoslovakia. In October 1944, Jiri Bader and his father Pavel were deported to Auschwitz, where they were murdered. Jiri's mother Grete and his sister Vera survived. See the album >>>
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Dear diary, from now on I’m imagining everything as if it really is a dream. [..] I know it isn’t a dream, but I can’t believe a thing. [..] Nobody says a word. Dear diary, I’ve never been so afraid” Eva Heyman age 13
Dried leaves, a souvenir from Riga, that Zalman Levinson sent to his aunt, Agnes Hirschberg, before the war
Dried leaves, a souvenir from Riga, that Zalman Levinson sent to his aunt, Agnes Hirschberg, before the war
Dried leaves, a souvenir from Riga, that Zalman Levinson sent to his aunt, Agnes Hirschberg, before the war. Zalman and his family were murdered in Riga in 1941. Read more >>>
Cloth patch like those sewn on the clothes of the children hidden in Chamonix
Cloth patch like those sewn on the clothes of the children hidden in Chamonix
The children's home in Chamonix provided a safe haven for dozens of children, most of them Jewish, from late 1942 until the liberation of France in the summer of 1944. The home was established by Juliette Vidal and Marinette Guy, later recognized as Righteous Among the Nations, with the assistance of the Jewish Scouts (EIF – Eclaireurs Israelites de France) and the OSE. Read more >>>
Regine (Rivka) Gartenlaub Paris, 1939
Regine (Rivka) Gartenlaub Paris, 1939.
Regina and her sister Dina were hidden by Georgette Cheverry during the war
Regine (Rivka) Gartenlaub Paris, 1939. Regina and her sister Dina were hidden by Georgette Cheverry during the war. On October 19, 1987, Yad Vashem recognized Regina and Dina’s rescuer, Odette Cheverry as Righteous Among the Nations.
Reflected image of Zalman Levinson, Riga, 1937. Zalman and his family were murdered in Riga in 1941
Reflected image of Zalman Levinson, Riga, 1937
Zalman and his family were murdered in Riga in 1941
Reflected image of Zalman Levinson, Riga, 1937. Zalman and his family were murdered in Riga in 1941. Read more >>>
This doll belonged to Inge Liebe from Dresden, Germany, who was 5 when she was deported with her mother to Auschwitz, where they were both murdered
This doll belonged to Inge Liebe from Dresden, Germany, who was 5 when she was deported with her mother to Auschwitz, where they were both murdered
This doll belonged to Inge Liebe from Dresden, Germany, who was 5 when she was deported with her mother to Auschwitz, where they were both murdered. Inge's grandmother, Tzvia Liebe, hid with friends throughout the war and survived. She managed to keep her granddaughter's doll, and brought it with her to Israel when she immigrated in 1966.
The Teddy Bear “Mishu”, Stella Knobel’s Best Friend
The Teddy Bear “Mishu”, Stella Knobel’s Best Friend
Stella Knobel parting from the teddy bear that accompanied her as a child throughout the war. "He was like family. He was all I had. He knew all my secrets. I saved him all these years, but I worried what would happen to him when I died. We've been through a lot together, so it was hard to let him go, but here [at Yad Vashem] he has found a haven." Read more >>>
A doll’s crib built by Ycek-Josef Horonczyk for his daughter Francine while he was interned in the Beaune-la-Rolande camp
A doll’s crib built by Ycek-Josef Horonczyk for his daughter Francine while he was interned in the Beaune-la-Rolande camp
A doll’s crib built by Ycek-Josef Horonczyk for his daughter Francine while he was interned in the Beaune-la-Rolande camp. Ycek-Josef Horoncyzk was later deported from Drancy to Auschwitz, where he was murdered. His daughter Francine and his wife Perle survived. Read more >>>
Petr Ginz (1928 -  1944). Street in Theresienstadt
Petr Ginz (1928 - 1944). Street in Theresienstadt
Art
Petr Ginz (1928 - 1944), "Street in Theresienstadt".
Watercolor, ink and pencil on paper.

Born in Prague, Ginz was a multi-talented youth, who drew and wrote essays, short stories and poems from an early age. Following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, he was expelled from school due to the racial laws. In 1942, he was deported to Terezin where he continued to draw and write. Together with friends in the youth barracks, Ginz edited and published the clandestine newspaper Vedem (We Are Leading). In the fall of 1944, he was deported to Auschwitz, where he was murdered immediately upon arrival. Read more >>>
The young boy in this photograph arrived in the Port of Haifa in 1945 with his brother after having been liberated from the Buchenwald camp
The young boy in this photograph arrived in the Port of Haifa in 1945 with his brother after having been liberated from the Buchenwald camp
The young boy in this photograph arrived in the Port of Haifa in 1945 with his brother after having been liberated from the Buchenwald camp. Eight-year-old Lolek arrived clutching a broken rifle given to him as a toy by a Jewish American officer. The British soldier who saw Lolek coming off the boat proudly holding the rifle insisted on taking it away from him. The boy pleaded, explaining that it was only a toy. This photograph was taken by a reporter, moments before the officer hit the child on the head and took the rifle away. The photograph appeared in the daily newspaper Ha’aretz the following day. Lolek settled in Israel with his older brother Naphtali, who also survived the Buchenwald camp. Lolek is the childhood name of Israel Meir Lau, who later became Israel’s Chief Rabbi and is currently the Chairman of the Yad Vashem Council.
A doll made by Pauline Hirsch Klauber in the Theresienstadt ghetto
A doll made by Pauline Hirsch Klauber in the Theresienstadt ghetto.
A doll made by Pauline Hirsch Klauber in the Theresienstadt ghetto. Pauline made toys and ornaments out of scrap metal and bartered them for food. The base of the doll was fashioned from a can of preserves.
Lydia Hӧnig's personal album containing notes from family and friends from Novi Sad, 1940-1941
Lydia Hӧnig's personal album containing notes from family and friends from Novi Sad, 1940-1941
Lydia Hӧnig's personal album containing notes from family and friends from Novi Sad, 1940-1941.
Lydia and her family fled to Budapest in 1942 and survived the Holocaust. Many of the family and friends who wrote dedications in the album perished in the Holocaust. See the album >>>
This doll belonged to Claudine Schwartz-Rudel was 7 years old when she fled from Paris to Southern France with her parents
This doll belonged to Claudine Schwartz-Rudel was 7 years old when she fled from Paris to Southern France with her parents
This doll belonged to Claudine Schwartz-Rudel was 7 years old when she fled from Paris to Southern France with her parents. Before they left Paris, Claudine's parents gave her a doll named Colette... Read more >>>
The Righteous Among the Nations Genowefa Majcher with the rescued Michael Rozenshein, summer 1947
The Righteous Among the Nations Genowefa Majcher with the rescued Michael Rozenshein, summer 1947
The Righteous Among the Nations Genowefa Majcher with the rescued Michael Rozenshein, summer 1947.
Lode Frank (pictured here) was rescued by the Schaafsma family in Holland
Lode Frank (pictured here) was rescued by the Schaafsma family in Holland
Lode Frank (pictured here) was rescued by the Schaafsma family in Holland. Lode’s parents were deported from Amsterdam and never returned. Lode survived the war, thanks to the efforts of the Schaafsma family (who hid other Jews as well). On August 18, 2015, Yad Vashem recognized Gerrit and Johanna Catarina (de Graaf) Schaafsma as Righteous Among the Nations.
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I feel as if I am in a box. There is no air to breathe. Wherever you go you encounter a gate that hems you in... I feel that I have been robbed, my freedom is being robbed from me, my home, and the familiar Vilna streets I love so much. I have been cut off from all that is dear and precious to me. Yitskhok Rudashevski age 15
From left to right: Majer-Marcel Bulka, his brother Albert, and his friend, Alek Bergman, Izieu, summer 1943
From left to right: Majer-Marcel Bulka, his brother Albert, and his friend, Alek Bergman, Izieu, summer 1943.
The Bulka brothers were both murdered at Auschwitz, Alek left the children’s home before the Gestapo raid, and survived the Holocaust.
From left to right: Majer-Marcel Bulka, his brother Albert, and his friend, Alek Bergman, Izieu, summer 1943. The Bulka brothers were both murdered at Auschwitz, Alek left the children’s home before the Gestapo raid, and survived the Holocaust. On the morning of 6 April 1944, members of the Lyon Gestapo carried out a raid on the children's home in Izieu and arrested everyone there. 44 children aged 4-17, and 7 staff members who had been taking care of them, were incarcerated in the prison in Lyon, and were deported to Drancy the following day. By the end of June 1944, all the children and adults caught in Izieu had been deported from Drancy. Most were sent to Auschwitz.
Raffia glasses case that Irma Schwartz made in the Gurs detainment camp, and sent to her son Heinz in Switzerland on the occasion of his Bar Mitzvah
Raffia glasses case that Irma Schwartz made in the Gurs detainment camp, and sent to her son Heinz in Switzerland on the occasion of his Bar Mitzvah
Raffia glasses case that Irma Schwartz made in the Gurs detainment camp, and sent to her son Heinz in Switzerland on the occasion of his Bar Mitzvah. The wrapping paper of the package is stamped with the date 28 July 1942. A few days after the Bar Mitzvah gifts were sent along with the parents' last letters, Hugo and Irma were deported to the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp where they were murdered. Read more >>>
Children of the home in Chamonix dressed up for Mardi Gras, 1943-1944
Children of the home in Chamonix dressed up for Mardi Gras, 1943-1944
Children of the home in Chamonix dressed up for Mardi Gras, 1943-1944.
Third from left: the girl dressed up as a princess is Nelly Einhorn (later Nurith Reubinoff). The children used to dress up and prepare plays. Very often they would rehearse in the streets near the children's home.
New Year card that 7-year-old Jacob Hijman Marcus wrote to his grandparents. Amsterdam, 19 September 1941
New Year card that 7-year-old Jacob Hijman Marcus wrote to his grandparents. Amsterdam, 19 September 1941
New Year card that 7-year-old Jacob Hijman Marcus wrote to his grandparents. Amsterdam, 19 September 1941.
"Opa and Oma,
I wasn't a good boy every day. Sometimes I was naughty, but from now on I'll be a good boy all the time. Best wishes for the New Year. I hope that this year and many more years will be happy. From your grandson,
Jaap"
Jacob Hijman Marcus wrote these words to his grandparents in Amsterdam in 1941, on the eve of Rosh Hashana, the Jewish New Year. On 23 October 1944, ten-year-old Jacob was deported to his death in Auschwitz. His grandparents, mother and father all survived. Read more >>>
The Doll “Lala” (“Ilana”) that Vera Lifschitz Received in the Transit Camp in Karachi, India (today Pakistan)
The Doll “Lala” (“Ilana”) that Vera Lifschitz Received in the Transit Camp in Karachi, India (today Pakistan)
The doll “Lala” (“Ilana”) that Vera Lifschitz received in a transit camp in Karachi, India (today Pakistan). Read more >>>
"My beloved mother, I am writing to you. I want to see you…" A last letter to mother written by 13-year-old Hersch Paluch
"My beloved mother, I am writing to you. I want to see you…"
A last letter to mother written by 13-year-old Hersch Paluch
"My beloved mother, I am writing to you. I want to see you…" 13-year-old Hersch Paluch's last letter, sent from the Końskie ghetto in 1941, to his mother Helena in Argentina. Read more >>>
A chess game played by a young girl and boy in the Mogilev ghetto in Transnistria
A chess game played by a young girl and boy in the Mogilev ghetto in Transnistria
13 year old Chaya Stecolchic from Czernowitz became friends with Leone Goldstein in the Mogilev ghetto. Leone, who had a chess set, taught her to play the game, and when they were released from the ghetto he gave the handcrafted game to her. On the reverse of the chessboard he wrote: "In remembrance of the difficult but happy days 24/4/1944". Read more >>>
Picture drawn by 8 year old Ruth Jurgrau for her father Dov on 10 February 1942
Picture drawn by 8 year old Ruth Jurgrau for her father Dov on 10 February 1942
Art
Picture drawn by eight-year-old Ruth Jurgrau for her father Dov on 10 February 1942.
Ruth survived the Holocaust as a child in hiding. Her mother Leah was deported to her death in Sobibor in 1943. Her father, Dov, was arrested, sent to Westerbork, and then to Auschwitz, where he was murdered. Read more >>>
Janina Zimnowodzki-Nebel was hidden by a Polish family in Katowice from 1942 until the end of the war
Janina Zimnowodzki-Nebel was hidden by a Polish family in Katowice from 1942 until the end of the war.
Janina Zimnowodzki-Nebel was hidden by a Polish family in Katowice from 1942 until the end of the war. On April 14, 1985, Yad Vashem recognized Janina's rescuers – Maria Nawrocka and her mother, Leokadia Nawrocka, as Righteous Among the Nations.
Velvele Valentin Pinkert, murdered at Babi Yar
Velvele Valentin Pinkert, murdered at Babi Yar
Velvele Valentin Pinkert, murdered at Babi Yar. The most notorious massacre of Jews in Ukraine during the Holocaust was at the Babi Yar ravine outside Kiev, where 33,771 Jews were killed in a single operation 75 years ago, on September 29–30, 1941.
Jadzia Beitner (Yochit Mendelsohn) was born in 1933 in Katowice. At age 10, she was deported to the Oberalstadt labor camp in the Sudetenland
Jadzia Beitner (Yochit Mendelsohn) was born in 1933 in Katowice. At age 10, she was deported to the Oberalstadt labor camp in the Sudetenland.
She survived together with her mother and 2 sisters
Jadzia Beitner (Yochit Mendelsohn) was born in 1933 in Katowice. At age 10, she was deported to the Oberalstadt labor camp in the Sudetenland. She survived together with her mother and 2 sisters. Her brother and father perished in the Holocaust. In 1947, Jadzia reached Eretz Israel through the Youth Aliyah. She finished night school, worked as a dental assistant and enlisted in the IDF. After her military service, she studied at Tel Hashomer nursing school and became a nurse, working in the profession until her retirement. Read more >>>
"I can hold my head up high" - Anne Meininger's last letter
"I can hold my head up high"
Anne Meininger's last letter
"I can hold my head up high". Anne Meininger wrote these words in her last letter, sent from France to her daughter, Hilde Garti, in Bulgaria. On 7 September 1942, she was deported to her death in Auschwitz. Read more >>>
Betty Waterman’s toy dog that accompanied her into hiding
Betty Waterman’s toy dog that accompanied her into hiding
Betty Waterman was born in 1940 to Konrad and Simone Rivka Waterman. At the age of two, she was sent to a Christian children’s home in Utrecht, wrapped in a blanket with a note with her name on it, clutching her doll and toy dog. Later Betty was smuggled from the children's home and transferred to the Tinholt family, who were members of the Dutch underground. There she remained hidden until the war ended. Betty's parents, who survived in hiding, located the Tinholts with the help of the Red Cross, and the family was reunited. Betty’s toy dog is part of the ready2print exhibition "Stars Without a Heaven. Children in the Holocaust" >>>
"Dear Daddy – we are well – goodbye". Sisters Suzan-Zsuzsa and Lili wrote these words in the last postcard that they sent to their father, Hugó Klein
"Dear Daddy – we are well – goodbye". Sisters Suzan-Zsuzsa and Lili wrote these words in the last postcard that they sent to their father, Hugó Klein
"Dear Daddy – we are well – goodbye". Sisters Suzan-Zsuzsa and Lili wrote these words in the last postcard that they sent to their father, Hugó Klein, who was in a labor battalion in Margitta-Marghita, near the Austrian border. The girls were deported with their mother to Auschwitz-Birkenau, where they were murdered. Hugó survived. Read more >>>
"In another week it will be your birthday. How I long to be with you, to kiss you and play with you…"
"In another week it will be your birthday. How I long to be with you, to kiss you and play with you…"
"In another week it will be your birthday. How I long to be with you, to kiss you and play with you… " Léo Cohn, one of the leaders of the Jewish Scouts in France, wrote these words on 26 July 1944, to his four-year-old son Ariel. Five days later, on 31 July, Léo Cohn was deported on the last transport leaving Drancy for Auschwitz. Read more >>>
The newspaper Kamarad (Comrade), published in the Theresienstadt ghetto, contained descriptions of children's lives in the ghetto, as well as stories and poems
The newspaper Kamarad (Comrade), published in the Theresienstadt ghetto, contained descriptions of children's lives in the ghetto, as well as stories and poems
The newspaper Kamarad (Comrade), published in the Theresienstadt ghetto, contained descriptions of children's lives in the ghetto, as well as stories and poems. Twenty-two issues have survived. An illustrated story entitled "Zandluzando," describing a car race, appears on the back page. It was produced by the editor of the newspaper, Ivan Polak, under the nom de plume Zgebanina.
Wooden pencil box containing pencils and other writing utensils used by young Mira Kristianpolerow from Probuzna, Poland
Wooden pencil box containing pencils and other writing utensils used by young Mira Kristianpolerow from Probuzna, Poland.
Wooden pencil box containing pencils and other writing utensils used by young Mira Kristianpolerow from Probuzna, Poland. When the war broke out, Mira and her mother were deported to Siberia. A short time later, Mira contracted diphtheria and died due to lack of medication. Read more >>>
A chessboard hand-crafted by Herbert Odenheimer (Ehud Loeb), a ward of the children's home at Chateau Chabannes
A chessboard hand-crafted by Herbert Odenheimer (Ehud Loeb), a ward of the children's home at Chateau Chabannes
A chessboard hand-crafted by Herbert Odenheimer (Ehud Loeb), a ward of the children's home at Chateau Chabannes.
Ehud Loeb survived the Holocaust as a child in hiding. His mother and father were murdered in Auschwitz. Immigrating to Israel after the war, he became an art historian and was the registrar of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem for 32 years. Read more >>>
Jacques Heller together with his rescuer Maria Vandenberghen, July 1954
Jacques Heller together with his rescuer Maria Vandenberghen, July 1954
Jacques Heller together with his rescuer Maria Vandenberghen, July 1954. Both Jacques and his parents survived the Holocaust in hiding and reunited after the liberation. On October 23, 2001, Yad Vashem recognized Eugène and Maria Vandenberghen and their daughter Fernande as Righteous Among the Nations.
A brooch that Vera Bader received from her friend Eva Kozower in the Theresienstadt ghetto before Eva and her family were deported to Auschwitz and murdered
A brooch that Vera Bader received from her friend Eva Kozower in the Theresienstadt ghetto before Eva and her family were deported to Auschwitz and murdered.
A brooch that Vera Bader received from her friend Eva Kozower in the Theresienstadt ghetto before Eva and her family were deported to Auschwitz and murdered.
A letter opener that served also as a penholder, made by Nissan Frenkel in Beaune-la-Rolande for his son Richard
A letter opener that served also as a penholder, made by Nissan Frenkel in Beaune-la-Rolande for his son Richard.
Nissan and his wife Esther Frenkel, and their son Richard, were murdered in Auschwitz
A letter opener that served also as a penholder, made by Nissan Frenkel in Beaune-la-Rolande for his son Richard. Nissan and his wife Esther Frenkel, and their son Richard, were murdered in Auschwitz. Read more >>>
Last letter from a mother and sister
Last letter from a mother and sister
This small postcard, decorated with a dove, the symbol of freedom, was written by Sonia Czarny’s mother Paula and sister Nadia in the Kovno ghetto. The postcard was smuggled out and delivered to Sonia, who was hiding in the house of a Lithuanian woman outside the ghetto. Paula and Nadia Czarny were murdered in the final liquidation of the ghetto in July 1944.
Prewar, Obertyn, Poland, Sonja Shulamit, Donia, and Esther Serger during the Sukkot holiday
Prewar, Obertyn, Poland, Sonja Shulamit, Donia, and Esther Serger during the Sukkot holiday
Donia and Ester were murdered in the Holocaust
Prewar, Obertyn, Poland, Sonja Shulamit, Donia, and Esther Serger during the Sukkot holiday. During the war the girls were moved to the Kolomyja ghetto. Donia (left) was buried alive in the Kamionka Forest on 18 February 1943. Ester (right) was murdered on the same day. Their parents Eliasz and Golda were murdered in the local cemetery after their hiding place had been discovered. Shulamit (center) survived the Holocaust. She submitted Pages of Testimony in memory of her parents and sisters and donated the family album containing this photograph to Yad Vashem.
Chess pieces that Zigmund Stern carved while in hiding in Slovakia, 1944
Chess pieces that Zigmund Stern carved while in hiding in Slovakia, 1944
For 4 months Zigmund and Rosina Stern and their 9-year-old son Alfred hid in the home of Maria & Jan Matula, and then in the home of the Potancok family, both in the village of Povraznik, Slovakia. To keep themselves busy, Zigmund carved chess pieces from pieces of wood he found in the yard and painted them and the chess board with ink that was bought for this purpose. Read more >>>
This Monopoly game was made in the graphics workshop in Theresienstadt as part of the ghetto’s underground activity
This Monopoly game was made in the graphics workshop in Theresienstadt as part of the ghetto’s underground activity
This Monopoly game was made in the graphics workshop in Theresienstadt as part of the ghetto’s underground activity. In addition to entertaining the children, it was intended to provide them with information about ghetto life. Read more >>>
Eva Frommer-Farkash of Bratislava, Slovakia, lost her family in 1943 and was taken in by Ernest and Nellie Geier
Eva Frommer-Farkash of Bratislava, Slovakia, lost her family in 1943 and was taken in by Ernest and Nellie Geier
Eva Frommer-Farkash of Bratislava, Slovakia, lost her family in 1943 and was taken in by Ernest and Nellie Geier. During her stay, her hosts had a baby daughter, Katka. When Jews were deported from Slovakia to extermination camps in the autumn of 1944, Ernest sent Eva to his catholic mother, Mária, with whom she stayed until the end of the war. On November 4, 1996, Yad Vashem recognized Mária Geierová as Righteous Among the Nations.
Hersch Paluch and his grandmother, Rachel Wajnrajter, Końskie, Poland, 1937
Hersch Paluch and his grandmother, Rachel Wajnrajter, Końskie, Poland, 1937
Hersch Paluch (center) and his grandmother, Rachel Wajnrajter, Końskie, Poland, 1937. The identity of the boy on the left is unknown. Hersch and his grandmother were murdered in the Holocaust. Read more >>>
Purim costume of a Greek freedom fighter that belonged to Rachel-Sarah Osmo from Corfu, Greece
Purim costume of a Greek freedom fighter that belonged to Rachel-Sarah Osmo from Corfu, Greece
Rachel-Sarah perished in Auschwitz
Purim costume of a Greek freedom fighter that belonged to Rachel-Sarah Osmo from Corfu, Greece. Rachel-Sarah perished in Auschwitz. Read more >>>
Group portrait of the children and staff, Izieu children's home, France, summer of 1943
Group portrait of the children and staff, Izieu children's home, France, summer of 1943.
Most of the children in the photo were murdered
Group portrait of the children and staff, Izieu children's home, France, summer of 1943. Most of the children in the photo were murdered. Read more >>>
A drawing by Herbert Odenheimer (Ehud Loeb) from the period when he was hiding in a children's home in Chabannes after being removed from the Gurs detention camp
A drawing by Herbert Odenheimer (Ehud Loeb) from the period when he was hiding in a children's home in Chabannes after being removed from the Gurs detention camp
Art
A drawing by Herbert Odenheimer (Ehud Loeb) from the period when he was hiding in a children's home in Chabannes after being removed from the Gurs detention camp. Ehud Loeb's mother and father were murdered in Auschwitz. Ehud Loeb survived the Holocaust as a child in hiding.
Scout handbook used in the children's home in Chamonix
Scout handbook used in the children's home in Chamonix
Scout handbook used in the children's home in Chamonix.
The children's home in Chamonix provided a safe haven for dozens of children, most of them Jewish, from late 1942 until the liberation of France in the summer of 1944. The home was established by Juliette Vidal and Marinette Guy, later recognized as Righteous Among the Nations, with the assistance of the Jewish Scouts (EIF – Eclaireurs Israelites de France) and the OSE. Read more >>>
Moshe Rosenblum (pictured here), who along with his parents and grandparents were rescued by the Vobolevičius’ family
Moshe Rosenblum (pictured here), who along with his parents and grandparents were rescued by the Vobolevičius’ family
Moshe Rosenblum (pictured here), who along with his parents and grandparents were rescued by the Vobolevičius’ family. The Vobolevičius’ family resided in the village of Saliai, not far from Vandžiogala, a district of Kaunas. The Vobolevičiuses took in little Moshe in November 1943. His parents and grandparents left the ghetto in March 1944 and were welcomed by the Vobolevičiuses. They were there for 4 months and were liberated by the Red Army. On October 23, 2006, Yad Vashem recognized Vincas and Helena Vobolevičius and Bronius and Monika Lukoševičius as Righteous Among the Nations.
Petr Ginz with his sister, before the war
Petr Ginz with his sister, before the war
Petr Ginz with his sister, before the war.
Born in Prague, Ginz was a multi-talented youth, who drew and wrote essays, short stories and poems from an early age. Following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, he was expelled from school due to the racial laws. In 1942, he was deported to Terezin where he continued to draw and write. Together with friends in the youth barracks, Ginz edited and published the clandestine newspaper Vedem (We Are Leading). In the fall of 1944, he was deported to Auschwitz, where he was murdered immediately upon arrival.
One of the suitcases used by Heinz Finke who left Germany on the Kindertransport to England
One of the suitcases used by Heinz Finke who left Germany on the Kindertransport to England
One of the suitcases used by Heinz Finke who left Germany on the Kindertransport to England. Heinz Wolfgang Finke, born in 1924, was one of the last youths to celebrate his Bar Mitzvah in the Synagogue of Insterburg, Germany, before it was destroyed in the Kristallnacht pogrom of November 1938. Read more >>>
Berta school received this pencil from her classmates in the Christian school that she attended, to mark the holiday of Saint Barbara
Berta school received this pencil from her classmates in the Christian school that she attended, to mark the holiday of Saint Barbara
Berta school received this pencil from her classmates in the Christian school that she attended, to mark the holiday of Saint Barbara. After the Germans occupied Krosno, Poland, Berta's parents found a hiding place for her with a Christian family. Berta's parents were murdered in the Holocaust, and Berta remained with the family that saved her. After the war, 13-year-old Berta was finally able to go to school. Read more >>>
Page from Sarika Kalderon's autograph book, Belgrade, 1939
Page from Sarika Kalderon's autograph book, Belgrade, 1939
Page from Sarika Kalderon's autograph book, Belgrade, 1939.
Sarika's grandfather Refael Majer was a rabbi, shochet (ritual slaughterer) and cantor in Belgrade. He and his wife Rivka had eight children, several of whom married and had children of their own. Almost the entire Majer family was wiped out in the Holocaust, including Sarika. Read more >>>
Erika Hoffmann's Personal Album
Erika Hoffmann's Personal Album
A Young Austrian Girl Hiding in Holland
Erika Hoffmann's personal album of a young Austrian girl hiding in Holland.
Erika was born in 1931 in Vienna, Austria, and came to Holland with her family in 1939. In May 1943, a few months before her 12th birthday, Erika was deported to the Sobibor death camp, and murdered on arrival. See the album >>>
Dov Jurgrau and his daughter Ruth, the Netherlands, prewar
Dov Jurgrau and his daughter Ruth, the Netherlands, prewar
Dov Jurgrau and his daughter Ruth, the Netherlands, prewar.
"Do you still remember the songs? I also sing them". Leah Jurgrau wrote these words to her 8-year-old daughter Ruth in her last letter from Westerbork on November 22, 1942. Leah was deported from Westerbork to her death in Sobibor in 1943. In July 1943 her husband Dov was deported to Auschwitz, where he was murdered in December. Ruth survived the Holocaust in hiding. At least 15 people were involved in Ruth's rescue and the attempt to save her parents. Most of Ruth's rescuers have been recognized as Righteous Among the Nations. In 1947 Ruth immigrated to Eretz Israel. Read more >>>
A hollow wooden duck that was used to smuggle documents during the Holocaust
A hollow wooden duck that was used to smuggle documents during the Holocaust
A hollow wooden duck that was used to smuggle documents during the Holocaust. The toy was used by Judith Geller in the course of her activities in the French Resistance, in her guise as a social worker visiting children. Read more >>>
Children's books that belonged to Ruth Rosenberg, a child from Germany
Children's books that belonged to Ruth Rosenberg, a child from Germany
Children's books that belonged to Ruth Rosenberg, a child from Germany. Herta Rosenberg bought the books for her baby daughter, Ruth, prior to leaving Germany after the Kristallnacht pogrom [in November 1938]. Read more >>>
Herbert Odenheimer (Ehud Loeb) with his father Hugo in Buehl, Germany, before the war
Herbert Odenheimer (Ehud Loeb) with his father Hugo in Buehl, Germany, before the war
Herbert Odenheimer (Ehud Loeb) with his father Hugo in Buehl, Germany, before the war. The family home is in the background. Ehud Loeb survived the Holocaust as a child in hiding. His mother and father were murdered in Auschwitz. Immigrating to Israel after the war, he became an art historian and was the registrar of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem for 32 years. Read more >>>
Ita Keller Lvov, Poland, 1943
Ita Keller Lvov, Poland, 1943
Ita Keller Lvov, Poland, 1943. Ita survived the Holocaust as a child in hiding and immigrated to Israel with her aunt after the war. On January 31, 1993, Yad Vashem recognized her rescuer, Tadeusz Kobyłko, as Righteous Among the Nations.
Petr Ginz (1928 -  1944). Interior of Living Quarters in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Petr Ginz (1928 - 1944). Interior of Living Quarters in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Art
Petr Ginz (1928 - 1944), "Interior of Living Quarters in the Theresienstadt Ghetto".
Watercolor, ink and pencil on paper.

Born in Prague, Ginz was a multi-talented youth, who drew and wrote essays, short stories and poems from an early age. Following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, he was expelled from school due to the racial laws. In 1942, he was deported to Terezin where he continued to draw and write. Together with friends in the youth barracks, Ginz edited and published the clandestine newspaper Vedem (We Are Leading). In the fall of 1944, he was deported to Auschwitz, where he was murdered immediately upon arrival.
“Dear Mummy and Daddy… I also kiss and hug both of you very tight. Yours, Edik"
“Dear Mummy and Daddy… I also kiss and hug both of you very tight. Yours, Edik"
“Dear Mummy and Daddy… I also kiss and hug both of you very tight. Yours, Edik." Edward-Edik Tonkonogi who had just started learning to write, wrote these words to his parents, Klara and Lazer who were artists in a travelling Russian theater. In the spring of 1941 they left young Edik with Klara's parents in Satanov, Ukaraine. Lazer and Klara were unable to get back to Satanov and learned after the war that most of their family, including Edik had been murdered. Read more >>>
Doll belonged to Agatha Miriam Ressler from Slovakia
Doll belonged to Agatha Miriam Ressler from Slovakia
This doll belonged to Agatha Miriam Ressler who was 5 years old when the deportation of Slovak Jewry to the concentration camps began. Agatha and her family managed to evade deportation for 3 years, fleeing and wandering in forests and between villages. Out of all her toys, Agatha chose to take the doll with her. She believed that the doll protected her and her whole family, all of whom survived.
In the Debrecen ghetto, Hungary, Leah Burnstein made a dollhouse with dolls in the image of her parents, as a souvenir of the home from which they were deported
In the Debrecen ghetto, Hungary, Leah Burnstein made a dollhouse with dolls in the image of her parents, as a souvenir of the home from which they were deported
In the Debrecen ghetto, Hungary, Leah Burnstein made a dollhouse with dolls in the image of her parents, as a souvenir of the home from which they were deported. Leah was sent to the Strasshof Concentration Camp in Austria. In the camp, Leah found a book cover with which she covered her cardboard "house". Leah survived and immigrated to Eretz Israel, bringing her "childhood home" with her.
The dollhouse is part of the ready2print exhibition "Stars Without a Heaven. Children in the Holocaust" >>>
Accordion that Shabetai Shemi from Bitola (Monastir), Macedonia received as a gift for his Bar Mitzva
Accordion that Shabetai Shemi from Bitola (Monastir), Macedonia received as a gift for his Bar Mitzva.
The accordion was given to a friend for safekeeping when Shabetai was deported
Accordion that Shabetai Shemi from Bitola (Monastir), Macedonia received as a gift for his Bar Mitzva. The accordion was given to a friend for safekeeping when Shabetai was deported. Shabetai was murdered but the accordion was later returned to his sister Gita. Read more >>>
Children at a Heder (religious elementary school), Staszow, Poland, prewar
Children at a Heder (religious elementary school), Staszow, Poland, prewar
Children at a Heder (religious elementary school), Staszow, Poland, prewar
Druja, Poland, Meir Levitanus (the submitter) and his sister Chaya Miriam Marla, 1941
Druja, Poland, Meir Levitanus (the submitter) and his sister Chaya Miriam Marla, 1941
Druja, Poland, Meir Levitanus and his sister Chaya Miriam Marla, 1941.
Meir and Chaya were photgraphed for a new year greeting card.
Chaya was murdered in Druja on 16 June 1942. Meir survived the Holocaust.
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May 30, 1944. [...] Dear diary, I don't want to die; I want to live even if it means that I'll be the only person here allowed to stay. I would wait for the end of the war in some cellar, or on the roof, or in some secret cranny. [...] Just as long as they didn't kill me, only that they should let me live. [...] I can't write anymore, dear diary, the tears run from my eyes Eva Heyman age 13
Childhood album of Ruth Frankel-Kolani, born on July 1, 1940 in Shanghai
Childhood album of Ruth Frankel-Kolani, born on July 1, 1940 in Shanghai
Childhood album of Ruth Frankel-Kolani, born on July 1, 1940 in Shanghai. Her parents had fled there from Germany and Austria.
Nelly Toll "Girls in the Field, Lvov, 1943"
Nelly Toll "Girls in the Field, Lvov, 1943"
Art
Nelly Toll "Girls in the Field, Lvov, 1943". Watercolors painted by Nelly Toll in the Lvov ghetto illustrate stories that her mother told her and reflect scenes from her pre-war life. Read more >>>
Herbert Odenheimer (Ehud Loeb) (front, with the crossed-over shoulder straps) at the children's home in Chabannes, 1941
Herbert Odenheimer (Ehud Loeb) (front, with the crossed-over shoulder straps) at the children's home in Chabannes, 1941
Herbert Odenheimer (Ehud Loeb) (front, with the crossed-over shoulder straps) at the children's home in Chabannes, 1941. In 2007, Ehud Loeb visited the "Memoriale de la Shoah" in Paris and viewed an exhibition about children's homes established by the OSE (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants), which worked to rescue children in France. Loeb identified himself amongst his friends and the staff in this photograph. Read more about the children's home in Chabannes >>>
Prayer shawl Jiři Bader received for his Bar Mitzvah, celebrated in the Theresienstadt ghetto in 1944
Prayer shawl Jiři Bader received for his Bar Mitzvah, celebrated in the Theresienstadt ghetto in 1944
Prayer shawl Jiři Bader received for his Bar Mitzvah, celebrated in the Theresienstadt ghetto in 1944. Six months after the Bar Mitzvah celebration, Jiri and Pavel were deported to Auschwitz, where they were murdered. Jiri’s sister Vera and mother Grete survived the Holocaust and returned to their family home in Kyjov, Czechoslovakia. Read more >>>
Krakow, Poland, a boy in a ghetto street
Krakow, Poland, a boy in a ghetto street
Krakow, Poland, a boy in a ghetto street.
Franka Kleczewska’s Personal Album
Franka Kleczewska’s Personal Album
Final Messages from the Lodz Ghetto
Franka Kleczewska’s personal album contains dedications to Franka written by her friends at the children’s home in Marysin, the agricultural area of the Łódź ghetto. Franka survived, but most of the girls who wrote in her album were murdered in the Holocaust. See the album >>>
Chess set carved by Julius Druckman in the Obdovka ghetto, Transnistria, 1943
Chess set carved by Julius Druckman in the Obdovka ghetto, Transnistria, 1943
Chess set carved by Julius Druckman in the Obdovka ghetto, Transnistria, 1943. Read more >>>
Norbert Kurzmann's Personal Album
Norbert Kurzmann's Personal Album
One of the Teheran Children Survivors
Norbert Kurzmann's personal album contains dedications to him written by children who made the journey with him from Tehran, via Karachi to Suez, and from there to Eretz Israel. See the album >>>
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I did not cry. I thought: I'm Jewish. There is no place for me. I stood there until no one stood in front of the school. Only me. The new school year had begun. But not for me. Hannah Hershkowitz
The drawing by Clairette Vigder with inscription “Tuesday, 14 July 1942”
The drawing by Clairette Vigder with inscription “Tuesday, 14 July 1942”
Art
The drawing by Clairette Vigder with inscription “Tuesday, 14 July 1942”. Clairette and her younger brother survived the Holocaust in hiding in Nazi-occupied Paris. Their father was murdered in Auschwitz in 1943. After the liberation the children were reunited with their mother. Read more >>>
Shifra Jonisz with her rescuer Leokadia Jaromirska
Shifra Jonisz with her rescuer Leokadia Jaromirska
Shifra Jonisz with her rescuer Leokadia Jaromirska.
Leokadia Jaromirska lived in the Warsaw suburb of Bialoleka. In October 1942 she took home the 8-month-old baby abandoned near the fence of a convent. As the Russians approached Leokadia was forced to evacuate. She took the child along and the two wandered from one place to another, constantly searching for food and for a place to sleep. In October 1945, 3 years after he had left her near the convent fence, Shifra's father managed to trace her. Read more >>>
Teacher with a student at a Joodsche Raad school, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Teacher with a student at a Joodsche Raad school, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Teacher with a student at a Joodsche Raad school, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
The baby shoe of Hinda Cohen, with the date of her deportation to the death camps carved into the sole by her father
The baby shoe of Hinda Cohen, with the date of her deportation to the death camps carved into the sole by her father
The baby shoe of Hinda Cohen, with the date of her deportation to the death camps carved into the sole by her father. Read more >>>
"Vanished" puzzle that belonged to Chana (Hendrika) Broer from Vught, the Netherlands
"Vanished" puzzle that belonged to Chana (Hendrika) Broer from Vught, the Netherlands
"Vanished" puzzle that belonged to Chana (Hendrika) Broer from Vught, the Netherlands. Read more >>>
The braids of Lili Hirsch, who was deported with her family to Auschwitz and murdered
The braids of Lili Hirsch, who was deported with her family to Auschwitz and murdered
The hair of 12 year-old Lili had not been cut since her early childhood. When she and her family were forced to leave their home in Târgu-Mureş and move to the ghetto, Lili’s mother, Rivka, knew she would not be able to care properly for her daughter’s hair in the ghetto. Chopping off Lili’s two long, beautiful braids, she promised that they would be given to the neighbors for safekeeping. Within six weeks, Lili and her mother were murdered at Auschwitz. Read more >>>
A drawing of the ship the St. Louis that 13 year old Liesel Joseph drew
A drawing of the ship the St. Louis that 13 year old Liesel Joseph drew
Art
A drawing of the ship the St. Louis that 13 year old Liesel Joseph drew.
The St. Louis left Hamburg, Germany in May, 1939, bound for Cuba. The boat was not allowed to dock in Cuba and wasn’t permitted entrance to the national waters of the U.S. or Canada and was forced to sail back to Europe. Most of the Jews who sailed on the St. Louis perished in the Holocaust. One of the few survivors was 13-years-old Liesel Joseph.
Fred Lessing (third from left) with other children on outing in Amsterdam
Fred Lessing (third from left) with other children on outing in Amsterdam
Fred Lessing (third from left) with other children on outing in Amsterdam. Read more >>>
Lunch bag belonging to Tamara Podriacikas from Kovno, Lithuania
Lunch bag belonging to Tamara Podriacikas from Kovno, Lithuania
Lunch bag belonging to Tamara Podriacikas from Kovno, Lithuania. Tamara was sent with her parents to the Kovno ghetto, and was murdered in the Ninth Fort in the "Great Aktion" of October 1941. Read more >>>
"The giving of the statutes [Torah] was a one-time event, but they will be in force for as long as the world exists. The commandments are so sacred and immutable that we must aspire to observe them under any circumstances."
"The giving of the statutes [Torah] was a one-time event, but they will be in force for as long as the world exists. The commandments are so sacred and immutable that we must aspire to observe them under any circumstances."
"The giving of the statutes [Torah] was a one-time event, but they will be in force for as long as the world exists. The commandments are so sacred and immutable that we must aspire to observe them under any circumstances."
Siegfried Bodenheimer wrote these words in his last letter to his son Ernst in the children's home in Montintin, three months before Ernst's Bar Mitzvah. Read more >>>
Box Holding Dried Flowers and a Dedication: "To my brother Shlomo on your Birthday, from your Sister Hadassah. Lindenfels, 7 June 1947"
Box Holding Dried Flowers and a Dedication: "To my brother Shlomo on your Birthday, from your Sister Hadassah. Lindenfels, 7 June 1947"
Box holding dried flowers and a dedication: "To my brother Shlomo on your Birthday, from your Sister Hadassah. Lindenfels, 7 June 1947". Sixteen-year-old Shlomo Hochman from Chrzanow, Poland received the gift on the deck of the "Exodus" from Hadassah Rosen. Shlomo and Hadassah, both sole survivors of their respective families, met in a children's home in Germany after the war.
Avraham Rosenthal, aged 5 and his 2-year-old brother, Emanuel, February 1944, Kovno, Lithuania
Avraham Rosenthal, aged 5 and his 2-year-old brother, Emanuel, February 1944, Kovno, Lithuania
Avraham Rosenthal, aged 5 and his 2-year-old brother, Emanuel, February 1944, Kovno, Lithuania. Emanuel was born in the Kovno ghetto. In March 1944 they were both deported to Majdanek together with their father and grandmother, and were murdered. Avraham and Emmanuel’s uncle, Shraga Wainer, had asked the photographer, Zvi (Hirsh) Kadushin (George Kadish), to take this photo, and recovered it after the war in the Landsberg DP camp. Approximately 10,000 children were incarcerated the Kovno ghetto. Within a few months, almost half of them (4,400) were killed during the"Great Aktion" of 28 October 1941.
Children at school in a DP camp, Germany, postwar
Children at school in a DP camp, Germany, postwar
Children at school in a DP camp, Germany, postwar.
Shmuel Borstein's cap, part of the school uniform of the Jewish Real ("reali") gymnasium in kovno, lithuania
Shmuel Borstein's cap, part of the school uniform of the Jewish Real ("Reali") Gymnasium in Kovno, Lithuania
Shmuel Borstein's cap, part of the school uniform of the Jewish Real ("Reali") Gymnasium in Kovno, Lithuania. Read more >>>
Mandatory Palestine, a group of five-year-old Tehran Children disembarking from a train, 18 February 1943
Mandatory Palestine, a group of five-year-old Tehran Children disembarking from a train, 18 February 1943
Mandatory Palestine, a group of five-year-old Tehran Children disembarking from a train, 18 February 1943. At the outbreak of World War II, some 300,000 Jews left Poland and fled eastwards, into the Soviet Union. From April to August 1942, the refugees were brought via the Caspian Sea to Tehran, which was under British rule. Amongst the refugees were some 1000 Jewish children, mostly orphans, and 800 Jewish adults.
"What are you up to, my darling? Be well. Lots of kisses from your mother." The Last Postcard from Berta Joschkowitz to her daughter Rosi
"What are you up to, my darling? Be well. Lots of kisses from your mother."
The Last Postcard from Berta Joschkowitz to her daughter Rosi
"What are you up to, my darling? Be well. Lots of kisses from your mother." Berta Joschkowitz wrote these words from the Będzin ghetto in western Poland to her daughter Rosi, who was in the Oberaltstadt labor camp. Berta was sent with her husband Schlomo and their son Elieser to their deaths in Auschwitz. Rosi and her sister Ruth survived. Read more >>>
Brooch in the shape of a puppy that Anna Nussbaum received as a parting gift from her father when she left Vienna on a Kindertransport
Brooch in the shape of a puppy that Anna Nussbaum received as a parting gift from her father when she left Vienna on a Kindertransport
Brooch in the shape of a puppy that Anna Nussbaum received as a parting gift from her father when she left Vienna on a Kindertransport. The brooch was the last gift that ten-year-old Anna ever received from her father. Anna's parents were deported from Austria and murdered. Read more >>>
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Today they came for my bicycle. I almost caused a big drama. You know, dear diary, I was awfully afraid just by the fact that the policemen came into the house. I know that policemen bring only trouble with them, wherever they go. [..] So, dear diary, I threw myself on the ground, held on to the back wheel of my bicycle, and shouted all sorts of things at the policemen: “Shame on you for taking away a bicycle from a girl! That’s robbery!” [..] One of the policemen was very annoyed and said: “All we need is for a Jewgirl to put on such a comedy when her bicycle is being taken away. No Jewkid is entitled to keep a bicycle anymore. The Jews aren’t entitled to bread, either; they shouldn’t guzzle everything, but leave the food for the soldiers Eva Heyman age 13
A bag sewn for Aleida-Chana Benninga by her mother and grandmother in camps set up by the Japanese in Indonesia
A bag sewn for Aleida-Chana Benninga by her mother and grandmother in camps set up by the Japanese in Indonesia
A bag sewn for Aleida-Chana Benninga by her mother and grandmother in camps set up by the Japanese in Indonesia. Read more >>>
Sarika Kalderon and her brother Avraham-Faja, Belgrade, prewar
Sarika Kalderon and her brother Avraham-Faja, Belgrade, prewar
Sarika Kalderon and her brother Avraham-Faja, Belgrade, prewar. Read more >>>
Throughout the war, Éva Modvál, born in 1936 in Transylvania, was accompanied by her doll Gerta. The doll was Éva’s best friend and the only witness to the good times enjoyed by Éva’s family before the war
Throughout the war, Éva Modvál, born in 1936 in Transylvania, was accompanied by her doll Gerta
A farewell letter that Holocaust survivor Éva Modvál wrote to her doll Gerta when she donated it to Yad Vashem: “Goodbye, my doll Gerta! ...Maybe you’ll be able to tell the people of today, and particularly the children, what you saw and where you were with me – a sad story, but also a cheerful one, because I survived... Dear Gerta, you will be the last witness of a dreadful childhood. May no child anywhere go through anything like that again...” Read more >>>
Children eating in the Orthodox Jewish home at 21 Twarda St., the Warsaw ghetto
Children eating in the Orthodox Jewish home at 21 Twarda St., the Warsaw ghetto
Children eating in the Orthodox Jewish home at 21 Twarda St., the Warsaw ghetto. Read more >>>
Stephan Lewy's notebook of sketches from the leather workshop run by Leon König in Chabannes
Stephan Lewy's notebook of sketches from the leather workshop run by Leon König in Chabannes
Stephan Lewy's notebook of sketches from the leather workshop run by Leon König in Chabannes.
In the building adjacent to the Château de Chabannes, there was a leather workshop where the older children at the home were taught and employed. Felix Chevrier, director of the children's home, who was later recognized as Righteous Among the Nations, believed in equipping the children with skills to prepare them for life after the war. Read more >>>
A portrait of Moshe and Pinhas, the nephews of the photo submitter, Bat Sheva Gudiuer. Both of the children were murdered in the Holocaust
A portrait of Moshe and Pinhas, the nephews of the photo submitter, Bat Sheva Gudiuer. Both of the children were murdered in the Holocaust
A portrait of Moshe and Pinhas, the nephews of the photo submitter, Bat Sheva Gudiuer. Both of the children were murdered in the Holocaust.
While hiding In a cellar in the Warsaw ghetto, little Zofia played with Zuzia, the doll that her mother, Natalia Zajczyk, had made for her
While hiding In a cellar in the Warsaw ghetto, little Zofia played with Zuzia, the doll that her mother, Natalia Zajczyk, had made for her
While hiding In a cellar in the Warsaw ghetto, little Zofia played with Zuzia, the doll that her mother, Natalia Zajczyk, had made for her. Read more >>>
"Darling Mother, don't be upset that I'm writing so little, The man didn't have time to wait."
"Darling Mother, don't be upset that I'm writing so little, The man didn't have time to wait."
The Last Letter from 11-year-old Rivka Folkenflick
"Darling Mother, don't be upset that I'm writing so little, The man didn't have time to wait." 11-year-old Rivka (Rywka)-Regina Folkenflick wrote these words to her parents, Chana and Moshe, and her brother, David, from her hiding place, a short time before she was murdered. Chana, Moshe and David survived. Read more >>>
The children of the home in Chamonix in uniform during a Scout activity at the summer camp, Chamonix, 1943-1944
The children of the home in Chamonix in uniform during a Scout activity at the summer camp, Chamonix, 1943-1944
The children of the home in Chamonix in uniform during a Scout activity at the summer camp, Chamonix, 1943-1944. In summer 1942, Juliette Vidal and Marinette Guy ran a summer camp for Jewish and Christian children in a chalet in Chamonix. When they were informed that most of the Jewish children had lost their parents in the deportations, Vidal and Guy converted the chalet into a children's home, which was run by Mirelle Levy. The children's home in Chamonix provided a safe haven for dozens of children, most of them Jewish, from late 1942 until the liberation of France in the summer of 1944. On January 2, 1969, Yad Vashem recognized Marinette Guy and Juliette Vidal as Righteous Among the Nations.
Długosiodło, Poland, 1930, Religious boys playing chess at a summer camp
Długosiodło, Poland, 1930, Religious boys playing chess at a summer camp
Długosiodło, Poland, 1930, Religious boys playing chess at a summer camp.
Valentina, daughter of Arkadi and Liudmila Zbar, was born in 1935 in Kharkov, Ukraine
Valentina, daughter of Arkadi and Liudmila Zbar, was born in 1935 in Kharkov, Ukraine
Valentina, daughter of Arkadi and Liudmila Zbar, was born in 1935 in Kharkov, Ukraine. She perished there with her parents in 1941. She was six years old. The photograph was submitted to Yad Vashem by Dmitri Kamyshan, Valentina’s cousin.
Yehiel Mintzberg, son of Abek (Abba) and Miriam Mintzberg, from Radom, Poland
Yehiel Mintzberg, son of Abek (Abba) and Miriam Mintzberg, from Radom, Poland
Yehiel Mintzberg, son of Abek (Abba) and Miriam Mintzberg, from Radom, Poland. On October 1942 he was deported to Treblinka and murdered. He was ten years old. The photograph was submitted to Yad Vashem by his aunt, Lola Politanski, who lives in Israel.
One-year-old Betty Rosenbaum. Amsterdam, August 1942
"I hope that you will be able to stay with your foster parents, who are so good to you, until we return. It is comforting for us to know that at least you are safe."
"I hope that you will be able to stay with your foster parents, who are so good to you, until we return. It is comforting for us to know that at least you are safe."
Johanna Rosenbaum wrote these words in her last letter from her incarceration in Neede, the Netherlands, to her infant daughter Betty, who was living in hiding in Eibergen. Betty survived. Her parents Johanna and Ephraim, and her baby brother Izaäk Michel Max (Maxje), were murdered during the Shoah. Read more >>>
Rosi Joschkowitz (on the left) and the neighbors' daughter Shulamit Gottlieb. Nordhausen, Germany, 1938
Rosi Joschkowitz (on the left) and the neighbors' daughter Shulamit Gottlieb. Nordhausen, Germany, 1938
Rosi Joschkowitz (on the left) and the neighbors' daughter Shulamit Gottlieb (b. 1936). Nordhausen, Germany, 1938. Shulamit was murdered during the Holocaust with her parents, Wolf and Dora, and her brother, Dorian. Rosi survived. Read more >>>
Starving children in the Warsaw ghetto, Poland
Starving children in the Warsaw ghetto, Poland
Starving children in the Warsaw ghetto, Poland
Yad Vashem Photo Archives, 2536/73
Children at a Heder (religious elementary school), Staszow, Poland, prewar
Children at a Heder (religious elementary school), Staszow, Poland, prewar
Children at a Heder (religious elementary school), Staszow, Poland, prewar
Moshe Manela and his daughter, Guta
Moshe Manela and his daughter, Guta
Moshe Manela and his daughter, Guta.
Moshe Manela was born in the town of Kielce, Poland in 1908. He married Bluma Citron, and their daughter, Guta, was born in 1937. All three were murdered in Treblinka in 1942 – Moshe was 34, his wife Bluma 33, and Guta was just five years old.
The Pages of Testimony in their memory and the photograph were submitted to Yad Vashem by Arieh Citron-Hadari, Moshe's brother-in-law and Guta's Uncle.
Warsaw, Poland, People lined up at a public kitchen in the ghetto
Warsaw, Poland, People lined up at a public kitchen in the ghetto
Warsaw, Poland, People lined up at a public kitchen in the ghetto.
Yad Vashem Photo Archives 3078/73
Westerbork, Holland, Lighting the candles on the seventh night of Hanukkah
Westerbork, Holland, Lighting the candles on the seventh night of Hanukkah
Westerbork, Holland, Lighting the candles on the seventh night of Hanukkah.
Yad Vashem Photo Archives 1922/19
Staszow, Poland, Prewar, a football team consisting of Jewish children
Staszow, Poland, Prewar, a football team consisting of Jewish children
Staszow, Poland, Prewar, a football team consisting of Jewish children.
Yad Vashem Photo Archives 5724/6
Girls eating matzah on Passover at the Rothschild Center, Vienna, Austria, postwar
Girls eating matzah on Passover at the Rothschild Center, Vienna, Austria, postwar
Girls eating matzah on Passover at the Rothschild Center, Vienna, Austria, postwar.
Yad Vashem Photo Archives 160BO1
Liselote Ermann's first day at school in Saarbrucken, Germany, 1933
Liselote Ermann's first day at school in Saarbrucken, Germany, 1933
Liselote Ermann's first day at school in Saarbrucken, Germany, 1933. In Germany, children customarily received a cone of sweets on their first day of school.
Class photograph of Jewish pupils with their teacher Mozes Goubitz, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Class photograph of Jewish pupils with their teacher Mozes Goubitz, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Class photograph of Jewish pupils with their teacher Mozes Goubitz, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
This photograph is part of an album documenting life and work in the Jewish Quarter of Amsterdam during the German occupation. The work was commissioned by J. Brandon, the secretary of the Jewish Council, in May 1941, and consists of 116 photographs taken over a two-month period. Most of the images depict Jewish residents.
Teacher with a student at a Joodsche Raad school, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Teacher with a student at a Joodsche Raad school, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Teacher with a student at a Joodsche Raad school, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Wooden pencil box containing pencils and other writing utensils used by young Mira Kristianpolerow from Probuzna, Poland
Wooden pencil box containing pencils and other writing utensils used by young Mira Kristianpolerow from Probuzna, Poland.
Wooden pencil box containing pencils and other writing utensils used by young Mira Kristianpolerow from Probuzna, Poland. Read more >>>
Children at school in a DP camp, Germany, postwar
Children at school in a DP camp, Germany, postwar
Children at school in a DP camp, Germany, postwar.
Shmuel Borstein's cap, part of the school uniform of the Jewish Real ("Reali") Gymnasium in Kovno, Lithuania
Shmuel Borstein's cap, part of the school uniform of the Jewish Real ("Reali") Gymnasium in Kovno, Lithuania
Shmuel Borstein's cap, part of the school uniform of the Jewish Real ("Reali") Gymnasium in Kovno, Lithuania. Read more >>>
Chemistry lesson, Latvia, prewar
Chemistry lesson, Latvia, prewar
Chemistry lesson, Latvia, prewar.
Hebrew lesson at a Jewish school, Wroclaw, Poland, 20.9.1946
Hebrew lesson at a Jewish school, Wroclaw, Poland, 20.9.1946
Hebrew lesson at a Jewish school, Wroclaw, Poland, 20.9.1946.
Group photo of pupils and their teacher in a Jewish school, the Netherlands
Group photo of pupils and their teacher in a Jewish school, the Netherlands
Group photo of pupils and their teacher in a Jewish school, the Netherlands.
A teacher and his students studying the Talmud, Poland, prewar
A teacher and his students studying the Talmud, Poland, prewar
A teacher and his students studying the Talmud, Poland, prewar.
Berta school received this pencil from her classmates in the Christian school that she attended, to mark the holiday of Saint Barbara
Berta school received this pencil from her classmates in the Christian school that she attended, to mark the holiday of Saint Barbara
Berta school received this pencil from her classmates in the Christian school that she attended, to mark the holiday of Saint Barbara. Read more >>>
1st grade end-of-year photograph at the "Tarbut" school, Zborow, Poland, 1939, just before the outbreak of the war
1st grade end-of-year photograph at the "Tarbut" school, Zborow, Poland, 1939, just before the outbreak of the war
1st grade end-of-year photograph at the "Tarbut" school, Zborow, Poland, 1939, just before the outbreak of the war. Seated first row second from left: Sabina Fuchs Shweid. Back row: the teachers, Mr. Karp and Mrs. Finkelstein.
Drawings copied from an anatomy textbook by young Kuba (Jack) Jaget while in hiding
Drawings copied from an anatomy textbook by young Kuba (Jack) Jaget while in hiding
Drawings copied from an anatomy textbook by young Kuba (Jack) Jaget while in hiding. Read more >>>
A teacher at the "ORT" school in the DP camp, Bergen-Belsen, Germany, postwar
A teacher at the "ORT" school in the DP camp, Bergen-Belsen, Germany, postwar
A teacher at the "ORT" school in the DP camp, Bergen-Belsen, Germany, postwar
Hebrew school class photograph, Utena, Lithuania, prewar
Hebrew school class photograph, Utena, Lithuania, prewar
Hebrew school class photograph, Utena, Lithuania, prewar
Vera and Jiri Bader with pupils and teachers at the Jewish school where they studied during the period of the Nazi occupation in Kyjov, Czechoslovakia
Vera and Jiri Bader with pupils and teachers at the Jewish school where they studied during the period of the Nazi occupation in Kyjov, Czechoslovakia
Vera and Jiri Bader with pupils and teachers at the Jewish school where they studied during the period of the Nazi occupation in Kyjov, Czechoslovakia. Jiri is in the middle, behind the girl wearing the light-colored jacket at the forefront of the photo. Vera is wearing a hat with a ribbon and is standing behind the girl holding the doll. Read more >>>
Children at a Heder (religious elementary school), Staszow, Poland, prewar
Children at a Heder (religious elementary school), Staszow, Poland, prewar
Children at a Heder (religious elementary school), Staszow, Poland, prewar
Outdoor Hebrew lesson at the Landschulheim Caputh Bei Potsdam school, Germany, 1934
Outdoor Hebrew lesson at the Landschulheim Caputh Bei Potsdam school, Germany, 1934
Outdoor Hebrew lesson at the Landschulheim Caputh Bei Potsdam school, Germany, 1934. The village school at 18 Potsdamer Strasse also served as a residence for young children.
Girls studying at a Hebrew language school, Sweden, 1946
Girls studying at a Hebrew language school, Sweden, 1946
Girls studying at a Hebrew language school, Sweden, 1946.
Teacher and pupils in a class in the Landschulheim Caputh Bei Potsdam school, Germany, 1936
Teacher and pupils in a class in the Landschulheim Caputh Bei Potsdam school, Germany, 1936
Teacher and pupils in a class in the Landschulheim Caputh Bei Potsdam school, Germany, 1936. The village school at 18 Potsdamer Strasse also served also as a residence for young children.
School badge belonging to Alina Landau, student at the Jewish girls' high school in Krakow, Poland
School badge belonging to Alina Landau, student at the Jewish girls' high school in Krakow, Poland
School badge belonging to Alina Landau, student at the Jewish girls' high school in Krakow, Poland. Read more >>>
Pupils and a teacher in a class in the ghetto, probably in a school in Marysin, Lodz, Poland
Pupils and a teacher in a class in the ghetto, probably in a school in Marysin, Lodz, Poland
Pupils and a teacher in a class in the ghetto, probably in a school in Marysin, Lodz, Poland.
Notebook used by Clairette Vigder to practice her handwriting during the war years
Notebook used by Clairette Vigder to practice her handwriting during the war years
Notebook used by Clairette Vigder to practice her handwriting during the war years. Read more >>>
Students at a school in the Jewish quarter, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1941
Students at a school in the Jewish quarter, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1941
Students at a school in the Jewish quarter, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1941.
Rabbi teaching in a Talmud Torah (religious elementary school), Russia, 1920s
Rabbi teaching in a Talmud Torah (religious elementary school), Russia, 1920s
Rabbi teaching in a Talmud Torah (religious elementary school), Russia, 1920s.
The "Yavne" Hebrew school run by the Rescue Committee at the Gabersee DP camp, Wasserburg, Germany, 27.4.1946
The "Yavne" Hebrew school run by the Rescue Committee at the Gabersee DP camp, Wasserburg, Germany, 27.4.1946
The "Yavne" Hebrew school run by the Rescue Committee at the Gabersee DP camp, Wasserburg, Germany, 27.4.1946. At the back of the photograph there is a dedication by the school principal to the Rescue Committee in Munich, "for making a religious national education possible". Read more about education in the DP camps >>>
3rd grade students in an Orthodox elementary school, Budapest, Hungary, 1940
3rd grade students in an Orthodox elementary school, Budapest, Hungary, 1940
3rd grade students in an Orthodox elementary school, Budapest, Hungary, 1940.
"Jacob's Dream", as drawn by Eliezer Dasberg for his young daughter Dina in a notebook in the Bergen-Belsen camp
"Jacob's Dream", as drawn by Eliezer Dasberg for his young daughter Dina in a notebook in the Bergen-Belsen camp
"Jacob's Dream", as drawn by Eliezer Dasberg for his young daughter Dina in a notebook in the Bergen-Belsen camp. Read more >>>
Math lesson in the Jewish school, Zhitomir, Ukraine, 1938
Math lesson in the Jewish school, Zhitomir, Ukraine, 1938
Math lesson in the Jewish school, Zhitomir, Ukraine, 1938.
A Jewish teacher brings his daughter to a school in a DP camp, Berlin, Germany, postwar
A Jewish teacher brings his daughter to a school in a DP camp, Berlin, Germany, postwar
A Jewish teacher brings his daughter to a school in a DP camp, Berlin, Germany, postwar.
Drafting tools used by Sava Prahy in school in Donetsk, Ukraine before the war
Drafting tools used by Sava Prahy in school in Donetsk, Ukraine before the war
Drafting tools used by Sava Prahy in school in Donetsk, Ukraine before the war. Read more >>>
Fred Lessing and classmates in Amsterdam, 1942
Fred Lessing and classmates in Amsterdam, 1942
Fred Lessing and classmates in Amsterdam, 1942. Read more >>>
The "Curta", a hand-held mechanical calculator that is able to calculate basic arithmetic functions, was completed by a prisoner in Buchenwald
The "Curta", a hand-held mechanical calculator that is able to calculate basic arithmetic functions, was completed by a prisoner in Buchenwald
The "Curta", a hand-held mechanical calculator that is able to calculate basic arithmetic functions, was completed by a prisoner in Buchenwald. Read more >>>
Jewish studies notebook belonging to Nachman Scheinowitz, the Westerbork camp, Holland
Jewish studies notebook belonging to Nachman Scheinowitz, the Westerbork camp, Holland
Jewish studies notebook belonging to Nachman Scheinowitz, the Westerbork camp, Holland. Read more >>>
2nd grade pupils at the Jewish school, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1937
2nd grade pupils at the Jewish school, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1937
2nd grade pupils at the Jewish school, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1937. The teacher and all the children were murdered in the Holocaust, except Eva (Chava) Pressburger Ginz, the submitter of the photograph (middle row, fourth from right in the checked dress with the white collar). Middle row, second from right: Hanna Lowy, front row, third from left: Ruth Cohen, on Ruth's left: Marta Frohlich.
Students and their teacher Franciszka Oliwa in a classroom at the children's home in Otwock, postwar
Students and their teacher Franciszka Oliwa in a classroom at the children's home in Otwock, postwar
Students and their teacher Franciszka Oliwa in a classroom at the children's home in Otwock, postwar. On the wall in the background is a newspaper published by the children in the home. The paper’s name is “The Young Scout’s Newspaper (Gazetka Zuchow Ogniwo), Group #12”. Read more >>>
A Jewish Brigade soldier teaches Hebrew in the DP camp in Bari, Italy, 1944
A Jewish Brigade soldier teaches Hebrew in the DP camp in Bari, Italy, 1944
A Jewish Brigade soldier teaches Hebrew in the DP camp in Bari, Italy, 1944.
The first Hachshara (pioneer training) camp established by soldiers from Eretz Israel in Bari was “Rishonim”. The Bari camp housed both Jews and non-Jews. In July 1947, there were some 780 Jews living there. To read more about daily life in DP camps and Hachsharot in Italy, click here >>>
Jewish schoolchildren and their teachers, Koenigsberg, Germany, 1935
Jewish schoolchildren and their teachers, Koenigsberg, Germany, 1935
The local Jewish school was opened on 28 April 1935
Jewish schoolchildren and their teachers, Koenigsberg, Germany, 1935. The local Jewish school was opened on 28 April 1935. Emphasis was placed on Jewish education and Zionism.
Folder of notebooks belonging to Ruth Pressburger of Bratislava, who was murdered during the Holocaust
Folder of notebooks belonging to Ruth Pressburger of Bratislava, who was murdered during the Holocaust
Folder of notebooks belonging to Ruth Pressburger of Bratislava, who was murdered during the Holocaust. Read more >>>
Talmud study in the Talmud Torah (religious elementary school) in the DP camp, Heidenheim, Germany, postwar
Talmud study in the Talmud Torah (religious elementary school) in the DP camp, Heidenheim, Germany, postwar
Talmud study in the Talmud Torah (religious elementary school) in the DP camp, Heidenheim, Germany, postwar.
Teacher and pupil near a map of Eretz Israel in the ghetto, probably in a school in Marysin, Lodz, Poland
Teacher and pupil near a map of Eretz Israel in the ghetto, probably in a school in Marysin, Lodz, Poland
Teacher and pupil near a map of Eretz Israel in the ghetto, probably in a school in Marysin, Lodz, Poland
A soldier from Eretz Israel (Mandatory Palestine) serving in the British Army teaches Jewish children Hebrew in a camp in Italy after the war
A soldier from Eretz Israel (Mandatory Palestine) serving in the British Army teaches Jewish children Hebrew in a camp in Italy after the war
A soldier from Eretz Israel (Mandatory Palestine) serving in the British Army teaches Jewish children Hebrew in a camp in Italy after the war. To read more about the encounter between survivors and soldiers from Eretz Israel serving in the British Army, click here >>>
Class photo of students at the Ecole Saint-Pierre-de-Fursac, a school attended by Jewish refugee children living at the Chabannes children's home, as well as those from the village
Class photo of students at the Ecole Saint-Pierre-de-Fursac, a school attended by Jewish refugee children living at the Chabannes children's home, as well as those from the village
Class photo of students at the Ecole Saint-Pierre-de-Fursac, a school attended by Jewish refugee children living at the Chabannes children's home, as well as those from the village.
Pictured: Pierre Lafaye; unknown; Renaud; Andre Dubois; Margot Weinberg; Lavinet; Andre Lelong; Kostia Sotnikov; Paulette Leblanc; Marcelle Fedon; Grosset; Irene Clement; Jeanne Luguet; Paulette Legris; Gisele Brunetaud; Ginette Chanliat; Mamet; Georges Loeffler; Norbert Bikales; Michel Razymovsky; Madeleine Boramier; Madeleine Basset; Anatole Zylberstein.
To read more about the Chabannes children's home, click here >>>