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Yad Vashem A Jewish Community in the Carpathian Mountains- The Story of Munkács

During the Holocaust

  • The Hungarian army enters Munkács, November 1939
  • A Hungarian gendarme checks a woman entering the Munkács ghetto
  • The Munkács brick factory where the Jews of the town were brought before their deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau. The factory is surrounded by a wooden fence.
  • Deportation of the Jews of Munkács. The Jews walked with their possessions along Mihaly street, opposite the great theater. They were brought to the brick factory, from where they were deported.
  • 17 May 1944 – Deportation of the Jews of Munkács – the Jews walked with their possessions from the ghetto to the brick factory, from where they were deported.

In September 1938, following the Munich Conference and its subsequent agreements, the Sudetenland (western regions of Czechoslovakia) was torn away from Czechoslovakia and given to Germany. This led to Poland and Hungary annexing territory from Czechoslovakia, allowing Slovakia and Subcarpathian Rus' complete autonomy, although still under Czech sovereignty. In November 1938, following the First Vienna Award, Hungary annexed southwest Subcarpathian Rus', including Munkács and Ungvar.

On 10 November 1938, the Hungarian army entered Munkács. The Jews of the town blessed the return of Hungarian rule, but their optimism was soon brought to an end. The Hungarian authorities persecuted the Jews from the beginning of their annexation of the town. Jews fell victim to physical violence, abuse and robbery. The authorities harassed Zionist groups, limited the Jews' economic activities, and recruited many men for forced labor in the Hungarian army.

On 19 March 1944, the German army invaded Hungary and four weeks later, the concentration of Jews began. Jews from Munkács were forced into two ghettos, and those from the surrounding areas were assembled at two brick factories on the outskirts of town. On 11 May 1944 the deportations to Auschwitz began, and on 23 May the last deportation train left Munkács.

The online exhibition was made possible through the generous support of:

Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany

The Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany works to secure compensation and restitution for survivors of the Holocaust.

Since 1951, the Claims Conference - working in partnership with the State of Israel - has negotiated for and distributed payments from Germany, Austria, other governments, and certain industry; recovered unclaimed German Jewish property; and funded programs to assist the neediest Jewish victims of Nazism.