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Opening Hours:

Sunday to Thursday: ‬09:00-17:00

Fridays and Holiday eves: ‬09:00-14:00

Yad Vashem is closed on Saturdays and all Jewish Holidays.

Entrance to the Holocaust History Museum is not permitted for children under the age of 10. Babies in strollers or carriers will not be permitted to enter.

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The Central Themes for Holocaust Remembrance Day Through the Years

Until the Very Last Jew: Eighty Years Since the Onset of Mass Annihilation

Until the Very Last Jew: Eighty Years Since the Onset of Mass Annihilation

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2021
“June 22, 1941 was like an earthquake, like a huge volcano erupting,” Zakhar Trubakov, The Secret of Babi Yar. "Krugozor," (Russian), 1997. recalled Zakhar Trubakov in his memoirs. One of a handful of Jews who witnessed the massacre of the Jews of Kiev at Babi Yar, he described the feeling that gripped him and the public during the German invasion of the Soviet Union.In June 1941, after having defeated Yugoslavia and Greece, Nazi Germany launched a surprise attack on the USSR. “Operation Barbarossa” was the codename given to the incursion of some four million troops...
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Preparing to pass out clothing for the needy from the main warehouse of the ZSS at 13 Leszno St.

Rescue by Jews during the Holocaust: Solidarity in a Disintegrating World

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2020
"Fate has willed us apart… Yet that same fate has also willed that during the years of our people's greatest misery, your mother is fulfilling a mission in order to ease this terrible suffering. If I survive this difficult period, I think I will be able to say that I have not lived in vain. In this spirit you must bear this separation, since the shared destiny of the Jewish people stands above any personal pain."From a letter by Gisi Fleischmann to her daughter Aliza in Eretz Israel, 6 September 1942 From Hana Yablonka, "Gisi Fleischmann: One Must Do Everything in Order...
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Jewish refugees waiting in a soup line at a shelter at 33 Nalewki Street

The War Within the War: the Struggle of the Jews to Survive During the Holocaust

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2019
When the battles of World War I came to an end, humanity hoped that never again would another world war erupt.That hope was crushed on 1 September 1939, when the German Army invaded Poland. Five years later, in 1944, while hiding in a town in Polish Galicia, Dr. Baruch Milch wrote in his diary, “On Friday, 1 September 1939, the day World War II broke out, my real life began to end. The events of that day, and everything that happened in the ensuing days and years, will be remembered to the world's eternal shame for as long as mankind endures. One day, when we tell our children and grandchildren...
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70 Years of Remembering and Building: Holocaust Survivors and the State of Israel

70 Years of Remembering and Building: Holocaust Survivors and the State of Israel

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2018
In his later years, Abba Kovner, Holocaust survivor, poet, partisan, and one of the leaders of the Vilna ghetto underground, wrote of his fellow survivors rebuilding their lives:“Those people… could have resignedly settled down where they were and tried to restore their ruined lives. I would not have been surprised had those same survivors become bands of thieves, robbers and murderers; had they done so, they might well have been the most humane and just of their kind."Kovner’s comments reflect his wonderment at the survivors’ rehabilitative and creative energies....
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Restoring Their Identities: The Fate of the Individual During the Holocaust

Restoring Their Identities: The Fate of the Individual During the Holocaust

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2017
On 19 August 1942, the Nazi Germans began to liquidate the Kowel ghetto in Volhynia. Most of the 8,000 Jews remaining in the ghetto were shot to death that very day at the Bakhov murder site near the city; those caught trying to escape were crammed into Kowel's Great Synagogue. They were held there for several days without food or water, and in highly unsanitary conditions. In view of their impending certain death, the victims inscribed their last words on the walls of the synagogue for posterity. Some wrote testimonies and wills, while others signed their names to farewell letters and calls...
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Felix Nussbaum. "The Camp Synagogue at St. Cyprien"

“Everything is Forbidden to Us, and Yet We Do Everything” - The Struggle to Maintain the Human Spirit during the Holocaust

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2016
In the diary that he kept in the Warsaw ghetto, teacher and educator Chaim Aharon Kaplan wrote, “In these days of our misfortune, we live the life of Marranos. Everything is forbidden to us, and yet we do everything.”Kaplan, Chaim Aharon. Scroll of Agony: The Warsaw Diary of Chaim A. Kaplan (Indiana University Press, 1999), p. 174.With these words, Kaplan expressed the struggle of the Jews to maintain their human spirit under the impossible conditions in which they found themselves under Nazi German occupation.From their rise to power, the Nazis strove to exclude all Jews – men,...
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The Anguish of Liberation and the Return to Life: Seventy Years Since the End of WWII

The Anguish of Liberation and the Return to Life: Seventy Years Since the End of WWII

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2015
Prof. Dina Porat
The partisan Abba Kovner used to tell the story of a Jewish woman survivor he met in Vilna, when he arrived at the site of the destroyed ghetto with the Soviet liberating soldiers. For almost a year, the woman and her young daughter had hidden in a small nook, and had come out from their hiding place for the first time after liberation.  As her mother broke down in tears, relating their experiences for the first time, the child asked her, surprised: "Mame, men tor shoyn weinen? – Mommy, is it okay to cry now?"On 8 May 1945, when the defeated Germans finally capitulated to the...
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Jews "On the Edge". 1944: Between Annihilation and Liberation

Jews "On the Edge". 1944: Between Annihilation and Liberation

The Central Theme for the Holocaust Remembrance Day 2014
Prof. Dina Porat
Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Day 5754 (2014) is marked by the situation of the Jews in 1944 – exactly 70 years ago. The expression "on the edge" is taken from Nathan Alterman's poem Joy of the Poor, which so aptly expresses the feeling which prevailed that year among the Jews of Europe, who were in the throes of a double race on which their very lives depended. On the one hand, cities from east to west, such as Vilna and Minsk, Warsaw and Riga, Belgrade and Sofia, Paris and Rome, were being liberated from the yoke of Nazi Germany; the Red Army was advancing,...
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A Jew jumps to his death from the 4th floor window of a burning building during the suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Defiance and Rebellion during the Holocaust. 70 Years Since the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

The Central Theme for the Holocaust Remembrance Day 2013
Prof. Dina Porat
"It is a necessity… an imperative, due to the historical truth and the legacy that our generation will bequeath to those who will come after us, to speak not only of the loss… but also to reveal, in its fullest scope, the heroic struggle of the people, the community and the individual, during the days of massacre and at the very epicenters of destruction."Thus wrote Yitzhak (Antek) Zuckerman, one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, in the early 1950s. Today his words remain a guiding principle as we mark the 70th anniversary of the uprising.The notions of "defiance"...
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Warsaw, Poland, A woman serving food to children in a public children on 11 Karmelicka Street

My Brother's Keeper: Jewish Solidarity During the Holocaust

The Central Theme for the Holocaust Remembrance Day 2012
“Micky and Stachek didn’t let go of each other during the entire death march. Both were young, but long-time inmates. Both were thoroughly experienced with all sorts of ‘normal’ situations in the camps. They knew all the usual and not-so-usual techniques for avoiding dangerous tasks. Their friendship was steadfast to the point where it never occurred to either one of them to enjoy an advantage the other one didn’t, even if the other one wasn’t even there. More than once, a piece of bread rustled up by one of them during the day would wait until evening, when...
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Gathering the Fragments - A National Campaign to Rescue Personal Items from the Holocaust Period

Fragments of Memory: The Faces behind the Documents, Artifacts and Photographs

The Central Theme for the Holocaust Remembrance Day 2011
Dr. Robert Rozett
"I bought this prayer book in Auschwitz for a portion of my daily bread ration. It accompanied me through the entire torturous journey in the death and concentration camps in Germany. I donate this prayer book today to Yad Vashem – as a reminder to future generations."Holocaust survivor Zvi KopolovichDuring the Shoah, an entire universe was shattered and dispersed in myriad directions. The remaining scattered fragments vary infinitely in size, shape and texture – from documents to diaries, testimonies to artifacts, photographs to works of art. Despite their wide dispersion,...
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Austria, Survivors on a train car after the war

The Voice of the Survivors

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2010
"Take heed... lest you forget the things your eyes have seen... and tell them to your children, and their children after them"(Deut. 4:9)The survivors of the Holocaust carried – and still bear – the weight of memory upon their shoulders. The presence of these eye-witnesses in our society, those who saw and experienced the events, provides this memory with an ethical power. The survivors are the very backbone of Shoah commemoration in the State of Israel and abroad. They were the first to document the years of terror, and continue to relate their painful memories today. In...
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Kovno, Lithuania, February 1944 - Avraham Rosenthal, aged 5 and his two year old brother Emanuel

Children in the Holocaust

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2009
On Holocaust Remembrance Day this year, during the annual “Unto Every Person There is a Name” ceremony, we will read aloud the names of children murdered in the Holocaust. Some faded photographs of a scattered few remain, and their questioning, accusing eyes cry out on behalf of the 1.5 million children prevented from growing up and fulfilling their basic rights: to live, dream, love, play and laugh.From the day the Nazis came to power, Jewish children became acquainted with cruelty, first in Germany and, as time passed, in every other country the Germans conquered or forged an alliance....
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March 1951, Family from Romania, after disembarking from an immigrant ship in Israel

Holocaust Survivors in Israel: 60 Years Since the Establishment of the State

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2008
Dr. Bella Guterman
“I came to Israel on the Tel Chai. We were caught and sent to the Atlit detention camp. Because of my young age - 17 - I was released… I decided to join the Palmach… In March 1948, when Jerusalem was beseiged, my company was sent to join up with the city. We passed Sha’ar Hagai and managed to make it to Ma’ale Hahamisha without being attacked… I remember the battle on Har Adar as one of the fiercest. We bonded under fire…”So related Holocaust survivor Shulamit Garbash to Yad Vashem. During the Shoah, the Dutch-born Garbash was interned in concentration...
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An outline of the hand of Friedl Bruckmann, born in 1925 in Nabburg, Germany drawn in his baby diary by his mother Gerta

Bearing Witness

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2007
Dr. Bella Guterman, Dr. Robert Rozett
“There is much talk about keeping a journal. Everyone believes there is a great deal that needs to be documented, things that don’t happen in normal life... I sometimes want to take a pencil and do something with it, record some of what lies in the depths of my heart, a relentless force deep within my soul which lays beneath my consciousness.”Extract from a diary by a young female prisoner in a forced labor camp during WWIILong before liberation, the Jews who experienced the Holocaust yearned to describe their experiences in writing. Throughout the war, many of those trapped in...
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Kovno, Lithuania, A performance of the ghetto orchestra

The Human Spirit in the Shadow of Death

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2006
Prof. Havi Dreifuss
During the war, European Jewry was faced with a constant struggle for their very survival. Yet even under such terrible conditions there were those who acted in areas that went beyond the necessities of human existence: they risked their lives - deliberately and intentionally - for higher values, including educating their children, maintaining religious values and traditions and sustaining centuries-old cultural activities. Unfortunately, not all those who succeeded survived the hell that was the Holocaust, but their deeds themselves bear witness to power of the human spirit.
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Ebensee, Austria, a US army medic and a liberated inmate playing the violin and accordion

The Anguish of Liberation and the Return to Life

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2005
Dr. Yaacov Lozowick
“The camp guard who came to open the gate said, ‘You are free and you can leave.’ …No one moved, no one went out.  We did not laugh, we were not happy, we were apathetic - and the Russians came.  A general came in, he was Jewish.  He told us that he was delighted to find that there were still people alive in the camp.  He started to cry; but we didn’t. He wept and we didn’t.”Bela Braver, deported to Auschwitz, liberated from Lichtewerden, Czechoslovakia, by the Red Army.On VE Day there was dancing in the streets of New York; in Moscow...
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Krakow, Poland, a boy in a ghetto street

Until The Last Jew... Until The Last Name

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2004
Dr. David Silberklang
“If you live—I will live within you…The city’s Jews have disappeared from the streets. There is nowhere to flee.”Last letter by Pinchas Eisner, Hungary, October 1944)Sixty years ago, on 19 July 1944, the Germans began rounding up the 2,000 Jews of Rhodes and Kos. After being detained for several days, they were loaded onto barges headed for Athens. During the eight-day journey, the ships stopped at Leros and collected the island’s sole Jewish resident. Once in Athens, they were all loaded onto a train; four weeks after the round-up they reached Auschwitz-Birkenau....
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Warsaw, Poland, 1943, General Stroop's men next to burning buildings during the suppression of the uprising

Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust. Sixty Years Since the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2003
Prof. Israel Gutman
Generation after generation, Jews and non-Jews alike confront the greatest crime ever perpetrated against humanity — the Holocaust. Overwrought, individuals and nations try to comprehend how the largest and most vibrant Jewish settlement that thrived in Europe for a millennium was eradicated in a matter of years.Just as Jewish fate differed from that of other nations under Nazi rule, so too did the nature of Jewish opposition to the Nazis. Out of the sheer will to survive, millions of persecuted Jews in Nazi Third Reich territory and the occupied countries resisted the Nazis. On the eastern...
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Their Last Voice: Letters and Testaments from Jews in the Holocaust

Their Last Voice: Letters and Testaments from Jews in the Holocaust

The Central Theme for Holocaust Remembrance Day 2002
Prof. Walter Zvi Bachrach
“We declare that on 7 July 1944, the order for the evacuation of the ghetto of Siauliai (Shavli) was issued. We want future generations to know our names: Shmuel Minzberg — the son of Shimon from the city, Lodz (Poland); his wife, Reisele née Saks from Vaiguva; her sister, Feigele Saks; and Friedele Niselevitch — the daughter of Nahum Zvi from Vaiguva. We don’t know to where we are being deported. Two thousand Jews are in the ghetto awaiting the order to leave. Our destiny is unknown. Our state of mind is dreadful. May the Kingdom of Israel be established speedily in our...
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