In preparing for immigration to Eretz Israel, an important role was played by the kibbutzim (farming collectives). In many respects, they carried on the tradition of Zionist kibbutzim and hachsharot (pioneer training schemes) that had been active in the interwar period mainly in Poland. Often the kibbutzim were part of the DP camps, but their members lived in separate units and were very eager to maintain their independence. The goal of the kibbutzim was to prepare their members for Aliyah (immigration) to Eretz Israel. This entailed Hebrew lessons and courses on the history of Eretz Israel as well as agricultural training. The first kibbutz of this kind was Kibbutz Buchenwald, which was founded in the summer of 1945.