In August 1944, with the approach of the Red Army to the Romanian border, Romania signed an armistice agreement with the Allies, and announced its participation in the war against Nazi Germany. Tens of thousands of Jews, survivors from Transnistria, started to return to Romania, where they encountered antisemitism that was sometimes deadly.
Hashomer Hatzair activists tried to rejuvenate their branches all over Romania. They sent emissaries to cities and towns and attempted to rally the youth for Zionist activities, and the study of Hebrew and the culture of Eretz Israel (Mandatory Palestine), in anticipation of immigration. The photograph depicts Hashomer Hatzair activists at a national counsellors' seminar in Bucharest in December 1944.