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Solidarity and Rescue in Romania

From the Report of the Elie Wiesel Commission

  1. Michael Shafir, “Marshal Antonescu’s Post-Communist Rehabilitation: Cui Bono,” in The Destruction of Romanian and Ukrainian Jews during the Antonescu Era, ed. Randolph Braham (New York, 1997), pp. 349-410.
  2. Marius Mircu, Din nou şapte momente - din istoria evreilor în România: Oameni de omenie, în vremuri de neomenie (Tel Aviv: Glob, 1987), 190 pp. Written in a journalistic style, the book does not provide a critical examination of documentary sources used in the evaluation of the described events.
  3. Leon Volovici, “The Victim as Eyewitness: Jewish Intellectual Diaries during the Antonescu Period,” in The Destruction, ed. Randolph L. Braham, pp. 195-213; Andrei Pippidi, “Dictatorship and Opposition in Wartime Romania,” paper presented at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, May 20, 2004.
  4. Jean Ancel, Contribuţii la istoria României: Problema evreiască, 1933-1944 (Bucharest, Hasefer, 2002), vol. 2, part 2: pp. 243-254.
  5. Nicuşor Graur, In preajma altei lumi… (Bucharest: 1946), pp. 158.
  6. Jean Ancel, ed., Documents Concerning the Fate of Romanian Jewry during the Holocaust (Jerusalem, 1986), vol. 10: no. 131, pp. 354-355; Lya Benjamin, ed., Problema evreiască în stenogramele Consiliului de Miniştri (Bucharest: Hasefer, 1996), no. 179, pp. 535-541.
  7. Dumitru Hîncu, Un licăr în beznă: Acţiuni necunoscute ale diplomaţiei române (Bucharest, 1997).
  8. Marius Mircu, op. cit.
  9. Adrian Radu-Cernea, Pogromul de la Iaşi. Depoziţie de martor (Bucharest: Hasefer, 2002), p. 66.
  10. Marius Mircu, op. cit., p. 37.
  11. Dimitrie Olenici, “Un protector al evreilor: ofiţerul român I. D. Popescu,” Studia et Acta Historiae Iudaeorum Romaniae 7 (2002): pp. 353-376.
  12. Radu Ioanid, Evreii sub regimul Antonescu (Bucharest: Hasefer, 1997), p. 183.
  13. Letter of Anna Pal, Yad Vashem Archives, file no. 6540.
  14. Randolph L. Braham, Romanian Nationalists and the Holocaust: The Political Exploitation of Unfounded Rescue Accounts (New York, 1998), pp. 95-119; Zoltán Tibori Szabó, Élet és halál mezsgyéjén. Zsidók menekülése és mentése a magyar-román határon 1940-1944 között (Between life and death: the escape and rescue of Jews across the Hungarian-Romanian border between 1940-1944) (Cluj-Napoca, 2001).
  15. Traian Popovici, Spovedania unei conştiinţe, in Matatias Carp, Cartea Neagra (Bucharest, 1946), vol. 3: pp. 150-181.
  16. Marius Mircu, Oameni de omenie în vremuri de neomenie (Bucharest: Hasefer, 1996), p. 210.
  17. Ibid., pp. 212-213.
  18. Ibid., p. 213.
  19. Ibid., p. 122.
  20. Monitorul official, no. 164, July 14, 1941.
  21. SRI Archives, fond Documentar, dos. 3.116, f. 14.
  22. Marius Mircu, op. cit., p. 215.
  23. Ibid., p. 216.
  24. bid., pp. 224-225.
  25. Ibid., pp. 46-47.
  26. Ibid., p. 123.
  27. Ibid., pp. 185-192.
  28. Ibid., pp. 134-143.
  29. Ibid., pp. 50-56.
  30. Ibid., pp. 82-83.
  31. Marius Mircu, op. cit., pp. 103-104.
  32. Radu Ioanid, op. cit., p. 167.
  33. Ibid.
  34. Ibid., pp. 192-194.
  35. ANIC, fond Inspectoratul General al Jandarmeriei, dos. 121/1943, p. 287; dos. 79/1943, p. 347; dos. 78/1943, pp. 42, 191.
  36. Arh. SRI, fond Documentar, dos. 3.118, f. 225; dos. 3.116, f. 14.
  37. Lya Benjamin, “Realitatea evreiască,” no. 5, May 1995.
  38. Adrian Radu-Cernea, Pogromul de la Iaşi. Depoziţie de martor (Bucharest: Hasefer, 2002), p. 66.
  39. Ibid.
  40. Ioanid, Evreii sub regimul Antonescu, p. 101.
  41. Iorgu Iordan, Memorii (Bucharest: Eminescu, 1977), vol. 2: p. 328.
  42. Marius Mircu, op. cit., p. 27.
  43. Ibid., p. 30.
  44. Ibid., p. 60.
  45. Emil Dorian, Jurnal din vremuri de prigoană. 1937–1944, ed. Marguerite Dorian (Bucharest: Hasefer, 1996).
  46. Marius Mircu, op. cit, p. 87.
  47. Ibid., pp. 157-182.
  48. Arh. SRI, fond Documentar, dos. 3.118, ff. 225-226.
  49. Marius Mircu, op. cit., pp. 153–154.
  50. Marcu Rozen, 60 de ani de la deportarea evreilor din România în Transnistria (Bucharest: Matrix Rom, 2001), p. 76.
  51. Ibid., p. 51.
  52. Marius Mircu, op. cit., pp. 103-105.
  53. Ibid., p. 91.
  54. Ibid., pp. 96-99.
  55. Ibid., pp. 99-100.
  56. Marius Mircu, op. cit., p.101.
  57. Ibid.
  58. Ibid.
  59. Ibid., p. 110.
  60. Ibid., pp. 101-102.
  61. Marius Mircu, op. cit., p. 102.
  62. Ibid.
  63. Ibid.
  64. Ibid.
  65. Marcu Rozen, op.cit., p. 110.
  66. Marcu Rozen, op.cit., p. 112.
  67. Braham, The Politics of Genocide, vol. 1: p. 631 and vol. 2, pp. 1191-1192.
  68. Moshe Carmilly-Weinberger, Istoria evreilor din Transilvania (1623-1944) (Bucharest: Editura Enciclopedica, 1994), p. 175. The existence of this appeal is disputed by Professor Braham in Romanian Nationalists and the Holocaust (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998), pp. 207-208.
  69. Marius Mircu, op. cit., pp. 60-61.
  70. SRI Archives, fond Documentar, dos. 3.116, f. 83.
  71. Ancel, Documents, vol. 5: pp. 278-287.
  72. Moshe Carmilly-Weinberger, op. cit., p. 174.
  73. ANIC, fond Presidency of the Council of Ministers, Cabinet Collection, dos. 163, ff. 89-90.
  74. Iuliu Maniu–Ion Antonescu. Opinii şi comentarii politice. 1940–1944, p. 171.
  75. Ibid.
  76. ANIC, fond Presidency of the Council of Ministers, Cabinet Collection, dos. 163/1940, f. 91. The report covers the period of September 1940-May 1943.
  77. Martiriul evreilor din Romania. 1940–1944. Documente si marturii (Bucharest: Hasefer, 1991), p. 224.
  78. Ion Serbanescu, ed., Evreii din Romania intre anii 1940–1944, (Bucharest: Hasefer, 1997), vol. 3, part 2: p. 461.
  79. Alexandru Safran, op. cit., p. 99. His assertions are not confirmed by official documents.
  80. Ibid., p. 100.
  81. Ibid., p. 78.
  82. Radu Ioanid, op. cit., p. 360.
  83. Moshe Camilly-Weinberger, op. cit., p. 176. For more details, see: Emigrarea populatiei evreiesti din Romania in anii 1940-1944, Document Collection from the Archive of the Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ed. Ion Calafeteanu, Nicolae Dinu and Teodor Gheorghe (Bucharest: Silex, 1993).
  84. Marius Mincu, op.cit., p. 109.
  85. Ibid., pp. 108-109.
  86. Radu Ioanid, op. cit., p. 367.
  87. Victor Eskenasy, “The Holocaust and Romanian Historiography: Communist and Neo-Communist Revisionism,” in The Tragedy of Romanian Jewry, ed. Randolph L. Braham (New York, 1994), pp. 173-236.
  88. Braham, Romanian Nationalists, pp. 233-234; Michael Shafir, Between Denial and “Comparative Trivialization”: Holocaust Negationism in Post-Communist East Central Europe (Jerusalem: ACTA, 2002).
  89.