Tuvyi Aryev was born in 1907 in Krasnoye Selo (presently a neighborhood of St. Petersburg) in a Jewish family.
After finishing school, Tuvyi enrolled in the Second Leningrad Medical Institute, graduating from it in 1931. A year later, he was recruited into the Red Army. In 1935, Tuvyi Aryev began to work at the Military Medical Academy.
In these years, Aryev intensively studied thermal and mechanical trauma, burns, frostbite, and pathological anatomy, while also practicing medicine. In 1938, he published a monograph on the subject of frostbite.
In 1939, Aryev took part in the Soviet-Finnish War.
Following the Nazi invasion of the USSR in late June 1941, Aryev was dispatched to the Karelian Front, where he served as assistant chief of a military sanitary department, eventually becoming chief inspector. From February 1943, Aryev served as a military surgeon and deputy chief surgeon. He organized and supervised the treatment of soldiers suffering from thermal injuries. Aryev and his colleagues developed an efficient new method for speeding up the treatment of frostbite. For this, he was awarded the Stalin Prize, 2nd Class, in 1943. He donated the prize money (50,000 rubles) to the Defense Fund.
In 1944, he returned to the Military Medical Academy, becoming a teacher there. In the course of the war, Tuvyi Aryev was awarded the Orders of the Red Star; of the Patriotic War, 2nd Class; of the Red Banner of Labor, and of the Red Banner of Valor. He also received medals.
After the end of the war, Aryev continued his scientific and teaching career. In 1951, he became head of the Department of Field Surgery at the Saratov Medical Institute. In 1957, he returned to Leningrad. In 1960, he founded the Thermal Injuries Department at the Military Medical Academy, serving as its head. At his initiative, burn treatment centers were established in cities throughout the country. Aryev authored more than 80 scientific works.
Tuvyi Aryev died in 1981 in Leningrad.