Human Spirit during the Holocaust

"To Live with Honor and to Die with Honor"
From a letter Emanuel Ringelblum sent out from Warsaw (via the Polish Underground) to be transmitted to YIVO in New York March 1st, 1944

Religious Observance during the Holocaust

Religious Observance during the Holocaust

Throughout the period of Nazi rule, the religious Jews endeavored to continue keeping the traditional law, however, with the deteriorating circumstances, maintaining a form of religious lifestyle became a major daily struggle.

Cultural Life in Ghettos and Camps during the Holocaust

Cultural Life in Ghettos and Camps during the Holocaust

Alongside the hunger, the crowding, and the constant hardship, a rich spiritual and cultural life existed in many ghettos. Jews often risked their lives for maintaining traditions and sustaining centuries-old cultural activities.

Mutual Aid and Welfare during the Holocaust

Mutual Aid and Welfare during the Holocaust

Despite the predatory reality endured by the Jews of Europe in World War II, many people mobilized to assist those weaker than them, establishing mutual aid and welfare organizations.

Jews Who Saved Jews during the Holocaust

Jews Who Saved Jews during the Holocaust

Even under such terrible conditions, there were those who acted in ways that went beyond the necessities of human existence: they risked their lives in order to save the lives of others.