The Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration, extermination, and forced labor camp has become known as the symbol of the Holocaust and of the murder of Jews. The camp, the first on occupied Polish territory, was established in 1940 near the city of Oświęcim. Jews from all over Europe were deported to the camp – from Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Yugoslavia and elsewhere. Upon arrival, they went through a "selection", in which the great majority of them were sent immediately to be murdered in the gas chambers. Only a small minority survived the selection and were chosen for forced labor within the camp and its sub-camps. Conditions in the camp were inhuman. Tens of thousands of prisoners were murdered in frequent selections, or died from daily abuse, hunger and diseases.
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