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The Holocaust at Nuremberg

Michael R. Marrus

  1. See Bradley F. Smith, The Road to Nuremberg (New York: Basic Books, 1981) and idem, The American Road to Nuremberg: The Documentary Record 1944-1945 (Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press, 1982).
  2. Report of Robert H. Jackson United States Representative to the International Conference on Military Trials. London 1945 (Washington: Department of State, 1949) (hereafter, Report of Robert H. Jackson), p. 48.
  3. Ibid., p. 299.
  4. Ibid., p. 34.
  5. Ibid., p. 11.
  6. International Military Tribunal. Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, 14 November 1945 - 1 October 1946 ,42 vols., (Nuremberg: International Military Tribunal, 1947; hereafter, IMT), V, pp. 406-409. On crimes against humanity, see Egon Schwelb, “Crimes Against Humanity,” British Year Book of International Law, XXIII (1946), pp.178-226; M. Sherif Bassiouni, Crimes Against Humanity in International Criminal Law (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1992); Sydney L. Goldenberg, “Crimes Against Humanity - 1945-1970,” Western Ontario Law Review, 10 (1971), pp. 1-55; and Roger S. Clark, “Crimes Against Humanity,” in George Ginsburgs and V.N. Kudriavtsev, The Nuremberg Trial and International Law (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1990), pp. 177-212.
  7. IMT, XIX, p. 518.
  8. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Division of International Law, Pamphlet No. 32, Violation of the Laws and Customs of War: Reports of Majority and Dissenting Reports of American and Japanese Members of the Commission of Responsibilities, Conference of Paris 1919 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1919).
  9. United Nations War Crimes Commission, History of the United Nations War Crimes Commission and the Development of the Laws of War (London: United Nations War Crimes Commission, 1948), pp. 175-176; New York Times, February 21, 1945.
  10. Report of Robert H. Jackson, pp. 329, 333.
  11. Jacob Robinson, “The International Military Tribunal and the Holocaust: Some Legal Reflections,” Israel Law Review, 7 (1972) (hereafter, Robinson), p. 3; H. Lauterpacht, “The Law of Nations and the Punishment of War Crimes,” British Year Book of International Law, XXI (1944), pp. 58-95.
  12. By introducing a comma instead of a semicolon after “war,” the Berlin Protocol of October 6, 1945, insured the limited scope of all crimes against humanity-limited, that is, to acts committed “in connection with any crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal . . . .” See Schwelb, “Crimes against Humanity,” pp. 194-195.
  13. Lauterpacht to Weizmann, July 29, 1945. Weizmann Archives: File 2596; Lauterpacht to Weizmann, August 12, 1945, ibid., File 2599; Leonard Stein to Weizmann, August 28, 1945, ibid., File 2600; minutes of a meeting, September 13, 1945, ibid., File 2603; Robinson, pp. 1- 13.
  14. IMT, II, p. 118.
  15. Lawrence Douglas, “Film as Witness: Screening Nazi Concentration Camps Before the Nuremberg Tribunal,” Yale Law Journal 105 (1995) (hereafter, Douglas), p. 477.
  16. IMT, II, pp.118-127.
  17. IMT, XIX, pp. 470-471.
  18. IMT, V, p. 412.
  19. On this issue see especially Annette Wieviorka, Déportation et génocide: entre la mémoire et l’oubli (Paris: Plon, 1992). See also idem, “Le proces de Nuremberg,” L’Histoire, No. 136 (September 1990), pp. 50-64.
  20. The only reference to Gypsies in the indictment was in a passage referring to “deliberate and systematic genocide, viz., the extermination of racial and national groups . . . particularly Jews, Poles, and Gypsies and others.” IMT, I, pp. 43-44.
  21. IMT, VIII, p. 294.
  22. IMT, I, p. 65.
  23. Telford Taylor, Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials: A Personal Memoir (Boston: Little, Brown, 1992), x.
  24. Bradley F. Smith, Reaching Judgment at Nuremberg (New York: Basic Books, 1977), p. 48.
  25. IMT, XIX, p. 404.
  26. IMT, XIX, p. 501.
  27. Ibid., III, pp. 553-559.
  28. See Douglas, pp. 449-481, which describes the screening for the court of a seventy-minute film on the liberation of camps in Central Europe. The narration of this film was rather sparse, and although it dealt with concentration camps rather than the death camps of Poland, it was remarkably reticent on issues related to the murder of European Jews. “The word ‘Jew,’ for example, is mentioned only once in the entire film, and in such a manner as to obscure any suggestion that Nazi terror was directed against Jews as a group: ‘The 4,000 Ohrdruf victims are said to include Poles, Czechs, Russians, Belgians, German Jews and German political prisoners.’” Ibid., p. 474.
  29. G.M. Gilbert, Nuremberg Diary (New York: Signet, 1947), pp. 48-49.
  30. H. Montgomery Hyde, Norman Birkett: The Life of Lord Birkett of Ulverston (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1964) (hereafter, Hyde), p. 505.
  31. IMT, IV, pp. 316-317, 326.
  32. IMT, IV, pp. 356-357.
  33. IMT, IV, pp. 358-359.
  34. I have learned a great deal on the Soviet prosecution from Natalia S. Lebedeva, “The USSR and the Nuremberg Trial,” lecture given at the University of Toronto, March 8, 1996.
  35. IMT, VII, pp.153, 192.
  36. IMT, VII, pp.191-192.
  37. IMT, VIII, pp. 302-308.
  38. IMT, VII, pp. 166-168.
  39. Rebecca West, A Train of Powder (New York: Viking Press, 1965), p. 6.
  40. IMT, IX, p. 272.
  41. IMT, IX, p. 258.
  42. IMT, IX, p. 619.
  43. IMT, X, pp. 411-412.
  44. IMT, XI, pp. 396-404.
  45. IMT, IX, pp. 618-619.
  46. IMT, XI, pp. 275-276.
  47. IMT, XII, pp. 7-8.
  48. IMT, XIX, p.416.
  49. Hyde, p. 505.
  50. IMT, XIII, p. 120.
  51. IMT, XIV, pp.431-2.
  52. IMT, XIV, p. 424.
  53. IMT, XV, p. 668.
  54. IMT, XVIII, p. 116.
  55. IMT, XVIII, p. 117.
  56. IMT, XVI, p. 416.
  57. IMT, I, pp. 179-181.
  58. IMT, I, p. 186.
  59. For a detailed discussion of this complex point, see Schwelb, “Crimes against Humanity,” pp. 178-226; and Goldenberg, “Crimes Against Humanity,” pp. 1-55.
  60. IMT, I, p. 251.
  61. IMT, I, p. 253.
  62. Robinson, p. 7. See also Anatole Goldstein, “Crimes Against Humanity: Some Jewish Aspects,” Jewish Yearbook of International Law (1948), pp. 206-225.
  63. See the important compilation in Jacob Robinson and Henry Sachs, The Holocaust: The Nuremberg Evidence (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1976).
  64. To put this trial in a wider context, see the excellent article by Mark J. Osiel, “Ever Again: Legal Remembrance of Administrative Massacre,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 144 (1995), pp. 463-704.