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Opening Hours:

Sunday to Thursday: ‬09:00-17:00

Fridays and Holiday eves: ‬09:00-14:00

Yad Vashem is closed on Saturdays and all Jewish Holidays.

Entrance to the Holocaust History Museum is not permitted for children under the age of 10. Babies in strollers or carriers will not be permitted to enter.

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The Abnormality of the Normal

Review by Daniel Fraenkel

  1. See especially Saul Friedlander, ed., Probing the Limits of Representation: Nazism and the Final Solution (London: 1992).
  2. Ernst Fraenkel, The Dual State - A Contribution to the Theory of Dictatorship (New York: 1969, p. I.
  3. For a different interpretation of the role of pre-war popular German antisemitism, see Michael Kater, “Everyday Anti-Semitism in Prewar Nazi Germany: The Popular Bases,” Yad Vashem Studies, vol. 16 (1984).
  4. For different assessments of the stance of the German populace see esp. Otto Dov Kulka and Aron Rodrigue, “The German Population and the Jews in the Third Reich. Recent Publications and Trends in Research on German Society and the ‘Jewish Question”’, in Yad Vashem Studies, 16 (1984), pp. 421-425.
  5. Yad Vashem Archives, M/8, ITS, Master Index, Reel O1; Buchenwald was liberated by the Americans on April 11, 1945.
  6. Cf. Hans Mayer, Ein Deutscher auf Widerruf: Errinerungen (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1988) and idem, Der Widerruf; Über Deutsche und Juden (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1994).
  7. Ernst Simon, “Jewish Adult Education in Nazi Germany as Spiritual Resistance,” LBI Year Book, I (1956), pp. 68-104. The original German version appeared in: Ernst Simon, Aufbau im Untergang; Jüdische Erwachsenbildung im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland als geistiger Widerstand, Schriftenreihe wissenschaftlicher Abhandlungen des Leo Baeck Institute of Jews from Germany, 2 (Tübingen: 1957), pp. 68-75.
  8. Y. Arad et al., eds, Documents on the Holocaust, 1981, pp. 57 (reproduced from the Jüdische Rundschau, no. 78, September 29, 1933).
  9. See Herbert A. Strauss, “Jewish Autonomy Within the Limits of National- The Communities and the Reichsvertretung” in Arnold —Socialist Policy Paucker, ed., Die Juden im Nationalsozialistischen Deutschland 1933-1943 (Tübingen: 1986), pp. 125-152.
  10. On the Reichsvertretung see Otto Dov Kulka, ed., Deutsches Judentum unter dem Nationalsozialismus, vol. 1: Dokumente zur Geschichte der Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden, 1933-1939 (Tübingen: Schriftenreihe wissenschaftlicher Abhandlungen Leo Baeck Instituts, Tübingen 1997).
  11. On Zionist policy toward Nazi Germany, see, among others, Daniel Fraenkel, On the Edge of the Abyss - Zionist Policy and the Plight of the German Jews 1933-1938 (Hebrew) (Jerusalem: 1994); Yoav Gelber, “Zionist Policy and the Haavara Transfer Agreement 1933-1935” (Hebrew) Yalkut Moreshet, 17 (1974), pp. 97-152; 18 (1975), pp. 100-123; idem, New Homeland - The Immigration of the Jews from Central Europe and Their Absorption, 1933-1948 (Hebrew) (Jerusalem: 1990); Francis R. Nicosia, “The End of Emancipation and the Illusion of Preferential Treatment - German Zionism, 1933-1938,” LBI Year Book, XXXVI (1991), pp. 243-265.