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Plunder of Jewish Property in the Nazi-Occupied Areas Of the Soviet Union

Yitzhak Arad

  1. Walter Warlimont, Inside Hitler’s Headquarters 1939-1945 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1964), p. 154.
  2. Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1985), pp. 355-357; Alexander Dallin, German Rule in Russia, 1941- 1945 (London: Macmillan, 1957), pp. 314-316.
  3. Nuremberg Doc., PS-212.
  4. The Reichskommissariat Ostland encompassed the Baltic countries and much of occupied White Russia. The civil administration in the Ostland and Reichskommissariat Ukraine had a hierarchy of “commissars” or “commissioners” who were the ranking officials, from Reich Commissar on down to Generalkommissar and Gebietskommissar.
  5. Nuremberg Doc., PS-1138.
  6. Verkündungsblatt des Reichskomissars für das Ostland, October 24, 1941, in My Obvinianiem (Riga: Liesma, 1967, pp. 72-73), Latvijas Psr Centrālais Valsts Oktobra Revolūcijas un Sociālistiskās Celtniecības Arhīvs, Fond 18 (Generalkommisseriat Riga) Opis 1, No. 2.
  7. Letter from the ‘Trustee Administration’ Minsk, June 23, 1942, on confiscation and subsequent handling of Jewish property, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archive (USHMMA), RG 53002-M, Reel 22.
  8. Raisa Andreevna Chernoglazova, Tragediya Yevreiev Belorusii v Gody Niemetskoi Okkupatsi 1941-1944 (Minsk: Izdateli Dremach-Galperin, 1995), p. 69.
  9. Ibid., p. 70.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Yitzhak Arad, Ghetto in Flames: The Struggle and Destruction of the Jews in Vilna in the Holocaust (New York: Holocaust Library, 1982), pp. 200-201, order issued by Hans Hingst, Gebietskommissar, Vilna.
  12. Yad Vashem Archives (YVA), M-33/1045, JM 10606.
  13. Letter, August 11, 1942, USHMMA, RG-53002-M, Reel 22.
  14. “Administration of Jewish Ghettos,” YVA, 053/161.
  15. V. I. Adamushko and G. D. Knatko et al., eds., “Nazi Gold” from Belarus, Documents and Materials (Minsk: State Committee on Archives and Record Keeping of the Republic of Belarus, 1998), pp. 110-113. The documents in the book are given in the German original, with a translation into English and Russian.
  16. Order on Jewish Property, YVA, JM 10606, M-33/1049.
  17. Document, Commander of the Regular Police (KdO) in Latvia, December 22, 1942, YVA, JM.10606, M.33.1049.
  18. Dallin notes that Lohse’s work style led to “a flood of directives, instructions and decrees which covered thousands of pages,” Dallin, German Rule in Russia, p. 186. Dallin also notes that Koch had less interest in what was happening in the Ukraine and points out the fact that Koch did not establish residence as Reichskommissar in Kiev, the Ukrainian capital, but rather in Rovno, 300 km to the west, ibid., p. 127.
  19. Hilberg, Destruction, p. 365.
  20. Order on Confiscation of Jewish Property, YVA, JM.13084, 0.51.310.
  21. Arad, Ghetto in Flames, pp. 94-98.
  22. A. S. Stein, ed., Baranowicz, Sefer Zikaron (Hebrew) (Tel Aviv: Association of the Survivors of Baranowicze in Israel, 1953), pp. 516-517.
  23. Shmuel Spector, ed., Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities – Poland: Volhynia and Polesie (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1990), vol. 5, pp. 198, 236, 295-296; Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (Jerusalem and Tel Aviv: Yad Vashem and Sifriyat Poalim, 1990), vol. 1, p. 240.
  24. Eliyahu Yones, Jews in Lvov During World War Two and the Holocaust 1939-1944 (Hebrew), Ph.D. dissertation, (Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, 1993), p. 68.
  25. Hersh Smolar, The Minsk Ghetto: Soviet-Jewish Partisans Against the Nazis (New York: Holocaust Library, 1989), pp. 12, 21; Vassily Grossman and Eliah Ehrenburg, eds., The Black Book: The Nazi Crime Against The Jewish People (New York: Nexus Press, 1981), p. 454.
  26. Grossman and Ehrenburg, The Black Book, pp. 366-368. Regarding Dnjepropetrovsk, it is stated that on September 26, 1941 the Jews were ordered to collect thirty million rubles. This amount seems exaggerated, and it is likely the source is in error.
  27. Ilya Altman, Yitzhak Arad et al., eds., Neizvestnaya Chernaya Kniga (Moscow and Jerusalem: Garf and Yad Vashem, 1993), p. 86.
  28. Sudebnyi Process po delu o Zlodeyaniach Nemecko-Fashistovskich Zachvatchikov v Beloruskoi SSR (Minsk: Gosudarstrenniye izdetestvo BSSR, 1947), pp. 155-156, 167.
  29. “Leistungen des Judenrates in Brest-Litowsk für die Deutsche Behörden,” YVA, 0.51.333.
  30. E. Rozauskas, ed., Documents Accuse (Vilnius: Gintaras, 1970), pp. 225- 226.
  31. Ibid., p. 227.
  32. Ibid., p. 266.
  33. Chernoglazava, Tragedia Yevreiev Belarusii, pp. 73, 75.
  34. Bella Gutermann, ed., Days of Horror: Jewish Testimonies from German Occupied Lemberg 1941-1943 (Hebrew) (Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University and Moreshet, 1991), pp. 38-41.
  35. Ibid., p. 77.
  36. Leib Garfunkel, The Destruction of Kovno’s Jewry (Hebrew) (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1959), pp. 58-61. Garfunkel was one of the members of the Ältestenrat that Jordan summoned. See also Joseph Gar, Downfall of Jewish Kovno (Yiddish) (Munich: Association of Lithuanian Jews in the American Zone in Germany, 1948), pp. 57-60.
  37. Grossman and Ehrenburg, Black Book (Hebrew) (Tel Aviv: Am Oved Publishers, 1991), p. 234.
  38. Smolar, The Minsk Ghetto, p. 22.
  39. Altman and Arad, eds., Neizvestnaya Chernaya Kniga, pp. 87-88.
  40. See, for example, the January 4, 1942 proclamation, signed by the head of the Lvov Judenrat, Dr. Rotfeld, Gutermann, ed., Days of Horror, p. 201.
  41. Herman Kruk, Diary of the Vilna Ghetto (Yiddish) (New York: YIVO, 1961), pp. 102-103.
  42. For the text of the announcement by the mayor of Kiev, see YVA, M- 52/205.
  43. For the text of the order, see YVA, M-52/198.
  44. Sudebnyi Process po delu o Zlodeyaniach, pp. 155-156.
  45. Lev Ginzburg, Bezdna (Moscow: Sovetskii Pisatel, 1967), pp. 65-66; the destruction of the Jews of Gaisin in the Vinnitsa district, YVA, M-33/224, M- 33-78, M-33/76.
  46. Testimony of Avraham Shmoish, YVA, 03/7064.
  47. YVA, M-33/114, 033/3133, pp. 14.
  48. Martin Dean, “Research Note. Jewish Property Seized in the Occupied Soviet Union in 1941 and 1942: the Records of the Reichshauptkasse Beutestelle,” in Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol. 14, no. 1 (Spring 2000), pp. 83-101. The article cites reports that detail the currency and valuables received by the War Booty Office.
  49. Yitzhak Arad, Shmuel Krakowski and Shmuel Spector, eds., The Einsatzgruppen Reports (New York: Holocaust Library, 1989), pp. 22-23.
  50. Ibid., Report No. 125, p. 208, and Report No. 133, p. 235.
  51. The Volksdeutsche migrated to Russia in the second half of the eighteenth century, during the reign of Catherine the Great. They settled in sparsely populated areas in the Volga region and the southern Ukraine, in the districts of Nikolajev, Zaporozhe and Dnjepropetrovsk. There were some 400,000 Volksdeutsche in the Ukraine on the eve of World War II.
  52. Arad, et al., eds., Einsatzgruppen Reports, report 103, p. 169.
  53. Ibid., Report No. 106, p. 174.
  54. Ibid., Report No. 156, p. 281.
  55. Nuremberg Doc., NOKW-1729.
  56. YVA, 03/7201, p. 23.
  57. Dieter Pohl, “Hans Krüger and the Murder of the Jews in the Stanislawów Region (Galicia),” Yad Vashem Studies, vol. XXVI (1998), pp. 258-259.
  58. Nuremberg Doc., NOKW-631.
  59. Ibid., NOKW-3238.
  60. Chernoglazova, Tragedia Yevreiev Belorusii, p. 76.
  61. Daniel Romanovsky, “Sovetskie Yevrei pod natsiskoi okkupatsiei,” Almanach Yevreiskoi Kultury (Moscow and Jerusalem, 1990), pp. 307-308.
  62. YVA, M-52/200, the source is housed in Kievskyi Oblastnoy Gosudarstvennyi Arkhiv, P-2225-1-639.
  63. YVA, M-52/213, ibid., P-2412-2-23.
  64. YVA, 03/4676; for similar testimony on a house taken by a policeman and the eviction of the Jews living there, see YVA, 03/4677.
  65. Grossman and Ehrenburg, Black Book (Hebrew) (Tel Aviv: Am Oved Publishers, 1991), p. 40.
  66. Nuremberg Doc., NOKW-2926.
  67. Lietuvos tsr Centrinis Valstybinis Archyvas, R-613-1-62, p. 211.
  68. USHMMA, RG-53006-M, Reel 5; Mogilevski Oblastnyi Arkhive, Fond 418, Opis 1, Delo 1.
  69. Ibid.
  70. Yuri Liakhovitski, Zeltaia Kniga (Kharkov: Bensiakh, 1994), p. 13.
  71. Order of the Rumanian authorities, YVA, M-52/242.
  72. USHMMA, R-69-1a-18.
  73. Nuremberg Doc., NO-5124.
  74. USHMMA, R-70-5-34, Reel 5; Hilberg comments on the meeting between Rosenberg and Himmler, which took place already on November 15, 1941. They also dealt with the question of Jewish property and the complaints by Lohse and Wilhelm Kube, Generalkommissar for Belorussia, against members of the SS who had taken the items for their own use. See Hilberg, Destruction, pp. 336-364.
  75. V. Y. Leede, A. T. Matsulevitch and B. L. Tamm, eds., NemetskoFashistskaya Okkupatsya v. Estonii (Tallinn: Institut Istorii Partii, Tsentralnyi Gosudarstvennyi Archiv, 1963), p. 105.
  76. USHMMA, R-70-5-34, Reel 5.
  77. Ibid.
  78. Nuremberg Doc., L-18.