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Patterns Of Anti-Jewish Violence In Poland, 1944-1946

David Engel

  1. The most thorough and reliable treatment to date is Bozena Szaynok, Pogrom Zydow w Kielcach 4 lipca 1946 (Wroclaw: Wydawnictwo Bellona, 1992). Other narrations of the events include Stanislaw Meducki, "The Pogrom in Kielce on July 4, 1946,” Polin 9 (1996), pp. 158-169; Krzysztof Urbanski, Kieleccy Zydzi (Krakow: Malopolska Oficyna Wydawnicza) n.d. [1995], pp. 177-228; idem, "Z problematyki zydowskiej w Kieleckiem w latach 1945- 1946," in Zydzi w Malopolsce: Studia z dziejow osadnictwa i zycia spolecznego, edited by Feliks Kiryk (Przemysl: Poludniowo-Wschodni Instytut Naukowy w Przemyslu, 1991), pp. 345-355; Yisrael Gutman, The Jews in Poland after World War II (Hebrew), (Jerusalem: Merkaz Zalman Shazar, 1985), pp. 34-41 (Gutman, The Jews in Poland); Marc Hillel, Le massacre des survivants: En Pologne apres l'holocauste (1945-1947) (Paris: Plon, 1985), pp. 256-281 (Hillel, Massacre); Michael Checinski, Poland: Communism, Nationalism, Anti-Semitism (New York; Karz-Cahl, 1982), pp. 21- 34. For a collection of documents relating to the pogrom and subsequent trials, see Stanislaw Meducki and Zenon Wrona, eds., Antyzydowskie wydarzenia kieleckie, 4 lipca 1946: Dokumenty i materialy (Kielce: Kielce Towarzystwo Naukowe, 1992).
  2. For an elaboration of these positions, see Krystyna Kersten, Polacy, Zydzi, komunizm: Anatomia polprawd 1939-68 (Warsaw: Niezalezna Oficyna Wydawnicza, 1992), pp. 90-115 (Kersten, Polacy, Zydzi, Komunizm).
  3. Hillel, Massacre, p. 302.
  4. On the establishment of PKWN, see, inter alia, Antony Polonsky and Boleslaw Drukier, The Beginnings of Communist Rule in Poland, December 1943-June 1945 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980), pp. 21-23 (Polonsky and Drukier, Beginnings of Communist Rule). On the Jewish Bureau, see David Engel, "The Reconstruction of Jewish Communal Institutions in Postwar Poland: The Origins of the Central Committee of Polish Jews, 1944- 1945," East European Politics and Societies 10 (1996), pp. 96-97.
  5. "Sprawozdanie z dzialalnosci Referatu dla spraw pomocy ludnosci zydowskiej przy Prezydium Polskiego Komitetu Narodowego Wyzwolenia [sic], 1 September 1944, Archiwum Akt Nowych, Warsaw (AAN), PKWN. XI/6, poz. 2. This passage was omitted from the published version of the report; cf. Michal Szulkin, "Sprawozdania z dzialalnosci referatu dla spraw pomocy ludnosci zydowskiej przy prezydium Polskiego Komitetu Wyzwolenia Narodowego," Biuletyn Zydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego 79 (1971), p. 77.
  6. “The Condition of the Jews in Liberated Poland,” (Hebrew), March 23, 1945, Archives of the Diaspora Research Institute (DRI), A.4/7. The report was originally composed in Lublin in Yiddish in January 1945 and transmitted to the office of Jewish Agency for Palestine in Jerusalem. The date on the report indicates the date on which the Hebrew translation was prepared.
  7. Draft letter signed by E. Sommerstein and P. Zelicki in the name of the Central Committee of Polish Jews, n.d. [handwritten annotation: "18/V.45"], DRI-INV.153/24.
  8. See, for example, JTA Daily News Bulletin, September 20, 1945 ("Anti-Jewish Terror in Poland Continues: Jews Organize Groups to Fight Assailants"). Cf. Leon Leneman to Adolf Berman, September 19, 1945, DRI-INV.153/39.
  9. See the transcriptions of the talks held by Ignacy Schwarzbart of the World Jewish Congress in London with Jan Stanczyk, the Polish minister of social welfare, August 16, 1945, Henryk Strassburger, Polish ambassador to the United Kingdom, September 7, 1945, and unidentified informants, September 18 and October 9, 1945, Yad Vashem Archives, Jerusalem, M2/279; also K. Stein, "Report on the Conference with Polish Foreign Minister W. Rzymowski and the Head of the English-American Department in the Polish Foreign Ministry, Mr. Olszewski," October 23, 1945, ibid.
  10. Department of State Intelligence Report OCL2312: "The Jews in Poland Since the Liberation," May 15, 1946, Wiener Library, Tel Aviv, WMF 007/9, Doc. 13.
  11. For examples of such analyses, see above, notes 9-10. An exception to this tendency is found in the consistent efforts of the Central Committee of Polish Jews to subsume antiJewish attacks under the broader rubric of armed opposition to the new communistdominated administration. The reasons for advancing this explanation, however, were clearly tactical, and there are indications that the people who did so actually understood the events differently. For a fuller discussion of this issue, see David Engel, "Polen und Juden nach 1945: historisches Bewußtsein und politischer Kontext als Faktoren polnisch-jüdischer Beziehungen in der Nachkriegszeit," Babylon: Beitrage zur judischen Gegenwart 15 (1995), pp. 28-48.
  12. Krystyna Kersten, Narodziny systemu wladzy: Polska 1943-1948 (Poznan: Krytyka, 1984), pp. 192, 195 (Kersten, Narodziny systemu wladzy).
  13. Gutman, The Jews in Poland, p. 28.
  14. Lucjan Dobroszycki, "Restoring Jewish Life in Post-War Poland," Soviet Jewish Affairs 3 (1973), pp. 68-70 (Dobroszycki, “Restoring Jewish Life”). See also Yosef Litwak, Polish-Jewish Refugees in the USSR 1939-1946, (Hebrew), (Tel-Aviv, Jerusalem: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institue of Cntemporary Jewry Ghetto Fighters’ House HaKibbutz HaMeuchad, Publishing House Ltd., 1988), p. 348.
  15. Dobroszycki, "Restoring Jewish Life," p. 66.
  16. The Polish files are located at AAN-MAP 786-90. For specific references to the other sources, see below.
  17. For example, speaking at a session of Poland's de facto parliament (KRN) on July 21, 1945, Emil Sommerstein, chairman of the Central Committee of Polish Jews, noted that since the previous May an unspecified number of Jews had been killed "in Przedborz, Suchedniow, Zeran, Wierzbnik, Zabludow, Suchowola, Tarnogrod, and in other locations." Killings in Przedborz (May 27, eight victims), Wierzbnik (June 15, two victims; June 17, one victim), and Tarnogrod (May 15, one victim), can be confirmed in detailed reports, but no trace has been found of attacks in any of the other locations mentioned during the interval in question. For the full text of Sommerstein's speech, see Dos Naje Lebn, July 31, 1945 (pp. 2-3: "8-te Sesie fun L.N.R.: Rede fun Dep. Dr. Sommerstein").
  18. Examples are the testimonies quoted in Hillel, Massacre, pp. 131-32, concerning the murder of five Jews in Nowy Targ in April 1946; also pp. 195-96, concerning events in Katowice on June 3, 1946. The book also quotes testimonies that have been corroborated: see, for example, the accounts of attacks in Kroscienko, Zaretta, and the outskirts of Nowy Targ in the spring of 1946, pp. 135-137 (although the report of the date of the Kroscienko attack, in which eleven Jews were killed, is inaccurate).
  19. For example, the Central Committee of Polish Jews reported in April 1945 that 150 Jews had been killed by Polish armed action during the first quarter of the year. Kersten, Narodziny systemu wladzy, p. 192; cf. Raphael Mahler, "Eastern Europe," American Jewish Year Book 47 (1945-46), p. 405. In contrast, only seven killings can be accounted for in detailed descriptions. Similarly, a report issued by the Political Department of the Polish Ministry of Public Administration noted thirty-eight Jews killed during the final quarter of 1945, as opposed to only three for whom detailed descriptions exist. "Sprawozdanie za okres od dnia 1.X.45 r. do 1.I.46 r.," AAN-MAP 786. In contrast, a report printed in the United States in 1947 claimed that "according to reliable data, between January 1 and May 4, 1946, 55 Jews were killed by Polish bandits," whereas detailed descriptions exist of incidents in which eighty Jews were killed during that interval. Leon Shapiro, "Poland," American Jewish Year Book 49 (1947-48), p. 383.
  20. F. Stolinski, Political Department, Ministry of Public Administration, to Ministry of Public Security, September 29, 1945 (Nr. II P. 625/2078/45: "Wystepki przeciwko ludnosci zydowskiej..."), AAN-MAP. 786, poz. 17-18. The reporter claimed to have compiled his figures from records held by his ministry, but records matching the numbers presented have not been found.
  21. "Objawy antysemityzmu w Polsce i walka z nimi," n.d. [handwritten annotation: "February 1946"], DRI-P.21/7.8. The figures presented in the breakdown by province on the first page of this document add up to 346 deaths, although the total is given as 351. The difference of five is most likely the result of a typographical error in the figure of sixty-four deaths given for the Lublin province: later in the document reference was made to "the overall total of sixtynine deaths in the Lublin province" (section IIc). If the latter figure is used, the total of 351 deaths throughout Poland is accurate.
  22. Jonas Turkow, Nokh der Bafrayung: Zikhroynes (Buenos Aires: Union Central Israelita Polaca, 1958), pp. 83-84. He claimed that these occurrences represented "only a small portion of the official protocols that the Central Committee received from the provincial Jewish committees." Such protocols have not yet been located.
  23. See, for example, in Testimonies of Survival; 96 Personal Interviews from Members of Kibbutz Lochamei Hageta’ot ,(Hebrew), Zvika Dror, ed. (Tel-Aviv: Bet Lohamei Hagetaot and HaKibbutz HaMeuchad Publi, 1984), the testimonies of Yehuda Bornstein (pp. 410-411), Meir Feivel Parpari (pp. 475-476), Aharon Feldenkreis (p. 562), and Moshe Noy (p. 942).
  24. For additional indications that March 1945 was a particularly devastating month for Polish Jews, see above, note 19.
  25. The unidentified report, too, appears deficient in noting violence in areas outside of the seven major provinces listed in the tables: whereas detailed records exist of killings in the regions of Gdansk, Pomorze, Upper Silesia, Lower Silesia, and Wloclawek, the report mentioned deaths in Pomorze and Upper Silesia only.
  26. On this westward migration, see David Engel, Between Liberation and Flight: Holocaust Survivors in Poland and the Struggle for Leadership (Hebrew), (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1996), pp. 57-58 (Engel, Between Liberation and Flight).
  27. See above, notes 6, 22.
  28. "Sprawozdanie za okres od dnia 1.X.45 r. do 1.I.46 r.," AAN-MAP 786.
  29. See, for example, Dos Naje Lebn, March 13, 1946 ("Di Banayte Teror-Aktsie"); also the remarks by Pawel Zelicki at the meeting of the presidium of the Central Committee of Polish Jews, "Protokul [sic] posiedzenia Prezydium CKZP," March 12, 1946, Information Center of the Interuniversity Project for the Study of Illegal Jewish Immigration to Palestine, Tel Aviv (IC), 35/12.
  30. Dos Naje Lebn, March 23, 1946 ("Arum di Letzte Mordn iber Yidn"). Cf. "Protokul [sic] posiedzenia Prezydium CKZP, March 12, 1946, IC-35/12. On the establishment of KRN, see Polonsky and Drukier, Beginnings of Communist Rule, pp. 10-21; on its parliamentary function, see Kersten, Narodziny systemu wladzy, p. 77.
  31. “ Protokul [sic]: Dalszy ciag posiedzenia Prezydium Centralnego Komitetu Zydow Polskich z dnia 8·maja 1946·r.," May 9, 1946, IC-35/12.
  32. Dos naje Lebn, November 16, 1946 ("Antisemitizm in Poyln vert shvakher").
  33. See, for example, the statement by Maurycy Zielonka of Plock concerning the circulation of a blood libel in the area of Kutno and Leczyca (Lodz province), September 30, 1946, and the attendant correspondence by government officials, AAN-MAP 787, poz. 148-151; also Dos Naje Lebn, October 18, 1946 ("Demaskirt di farbrekherishe plener fun Gen. Anders").
  34. Dobroszycki, "Restoring Jewish Life," p. 66, stated that "according to general estimates 1,500 Jews lost their lives in Poland from liberation until the summer of 1947." He offered no reference for such "general estimates," however, and they have not been confirmed by any other investigator. Gutman, Jews in Poland, p. 33, placed the number during the same interval at 1,000; he, too, adduced no proof-text for this figure. Both estimates seem high.
  35. Zaklad Historii Partii przy KC PZPR, Polegli w walce o wladze ludowa, Warsaw 1970 (PWWL). The sources of the compilation are detailed on pp. 17-22.
  36. Ibid., pp. 22, 26.
  37. Ibid., p. 22. The statistical compilations did not include Poles killed in encounters with Ukrainian nationalists, among others. As a result, the numbers reported are considerably less than those put forth in contemporary estimates, which evidently included such encounters. See Kersten, Narodziny systemu wladzy, pp. 197-198.
  38. "Dowodca Armii Krajowej o zalozeniach, celach i zadaniach wzmozonej akcji dywersyjnej kryptonim 'Burza'," November 20, 1943, in Eugeniusz Duraczynski, Miedzy Londynem i Warszawa, lipiec 1943-lipiec 1944 (Warsaw: Panstwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1986), p. 266; see also J. M. Ciechanowski, Powstanie warszawskie: Zarys podloza politycznego i dyplomatycznego, (Warsaw: Panstwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1984), pp. 261-268.
  39. On the formation and operation of these groups, see Stanislaw Piechowicz, "Podziemie poakowskie," in 1944-1947: W walce o utrwalenie wladzy ludowej w Polsce, Jan Czapla et al.,eds. (Warsaw: Ksiazka i Wiedza, 1967), pp. 49-77.
  40. John Coutouvidis and Jaime Reynolds, Poland 1939-1947 (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1986), p. 173 (Coutouvidis and Reynolds, Poland).
  41. Coutouvidis and Reynolds, Poland, p. 172.
  42. On the arrest and trial of the sixteen, see, inter alia, Kersten, Narodziny systemu wladzy, p. 121.
  43. Ibid., pp. 199-200; Coutouvidis and Reynolds, Poland, pp. 188-189.
  44. The Yalta agreements, adopted by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union in February 1945, had stipulated that the "Polish Provisional Government of National Unity shall be pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot." "Communiqué issued at the end of the Yalta Conference," February 11, 1945, in Foreign Relations of the United States 1945 (Washington: Government Press Office, 1958), 5:974.
  45. Coutouvidis and Reynolds, Poland, p. 235.
  46. On the referendum and the apparent falsification of the results, see, inter alia, ibid., pp. 253-254; Kersten, Narodziny systemu wladzy, pp. 248-249.
  47. Quoted in Antony Polonsky, "Stalin and the Poles 1941-7," European History Quarterly 17 (1987), p. 480.
  48. Coutouvidis and Reynolds, Poland, pp. 275-276.
  49. The numbers are approximate because they have been derived from the graphic representation of the data in PWWL, presented in ibid., p. 216.
  50. This relative proportion is attested also in the two reports on anti-Jewish violence in 1945.
  51. PWWL, p. 30, notes 465 deaths of government supporters in the Kielce province between July 1944 and December 1949, out of a total of 7,963 killings during that interval. Even if all of those deaths occurred between September 1944 and December 1946, they would have accounted for only slightly more than 7 percent of the approximately 6,500 killings that took place in those months. Unfortunately, the geographical distribution of deaths was not tabulated on a month-by-month or even a year-by-year basis.
  52. The figure for Jews is based upon the adjusted estimate for Bialystok. See above.
  53. Jewish population figures have been calculated from data collected by the Central Committee of Polish Jews in June 1946. The data have been published in Lucjan Dobroszycki, Survivors of the Holocaust in Poland: A Portrait Based on Jewish Community Records 1944-1947 (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1994), p. 85 (Dobroszycki, Survivors of the Holocaust). Polish population figures have been calculated on the basis of statistics from the national census of 1950, published in Glowny Urzad Statystyczny PRL, Rocznik Statystyczny 1955, Warsaw, 1956, p. 24.
  54. For example, whereas in June 1946 the Bialystok province accounted for less than 1 percent of the total Jewish population of Poland, in May 1945 almost 3 percent of Polish Jews lived there. More strikingly, the Kielce province accounted for 11 percent of the Jewish population in May 1945, as opposed to only 1 percent in June 1946. See Dobroszycki, Survivors of the Holocaust, p. 67. For more on the processes of immigration, emigration, and internal migration, see Engel, Between Liberation and Flight, chapters 1, 4. For additional observations on population change as it affected the level of anti-Jewish violence, see below.
  55. PWWL, p. 28.
  56. For the Polish figure, see ibid. The Jewish figure is based on the total number of victims specifically identified.
  57. "Memorial w sprawie bezpieczenstwa zycia i mienia zydostwa lubelskiego," March 25, 1946, AAN-MAP 787, poz. 116.
  58. A report from April 1945 indicated two guerrilla bands operating in the Parczew area, one numbering 100 fighters, the other 150. "Meldunek," April 5, 1945, IC-35/12.
  59. On the dependence of the antigovernment underground upon forceful expropriations from the local population, see Kersten, Narodziny systemu wladzy, p. 198.
  60. For the population estimate, see Dobroszycki, Survivors of the Holocaust, p. 79.
  61. "Protokol," February 14, 1946, AAN-MAP 786, poz. 41.
  62. Quoted in Kersten, Polacy, Zydzi, komunizm, p. 116.
  63. See above, note 17.
  64. A list from August 15, 1945, shows six Jews living in the town; according to a similar list from the end of 1945, the number of Jewish residents had dropped to two. Dobroszycki, Survivors of the Holocaust, pp. 73, 79. At no time following the liberation does Przedborz appear to have a Jewish population of more than a dozen; see Pinkas HaKehillot: Encyclopaedia of Jewish Commiunities Polin, vol. 1: The Communities of Lodz and its Region (Hebrew) (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1976), p. 208; also Dos Naje Lebn, July 11, 1945 (p. 9: “Vider Mordn iber Yidn”), which stated that “all nine Jewish residents were abducted.”
  65. For the population survey, see Dobroszycki, Survivors of the Holocaust, pp. 69-75.
  66. “Opisy niektorych mordow i rabunkow dokonywanych na obywatelach polskich narodowosci zydowskiej,” n.d. AAN - MAP 786, poz. 19.
  67. Dos Naje Lebn, July 11, 1945 (p. 9: “Vider Mordn iber Yidn”).
  68. Jewish Telegraphic Agency Daily News Bulletin, August 8, 1945.
  69. Reproduced in above, note 21.
  70. Referat dla spraw pomocy ludnosci zydowskiej przy Prezydium PKWN, "Drugie sprawozdanie z dzialalnosci," September 17, 1944, AAN - PKWN, I/47, poz.29.
  71. “Opisy niektorych mordow i rabunkow dokonywanych na obywatelach polskich narodowosci zydowskiej.” n.d., AAN-MAP 786, poz. 20.
  72. See above, note 55.
  73. Referat dla spraw pomocy ludnosci zydowskiej przy Prezydium PKWN, "Czwarte sprawozdanie z dzialalnosci," AAN-PKWN XI/6, poz. 24-25.
  74. See, for example, A. Grabowski, Ministry of Public Administration, to W. Wolski, Government Plenipotentiary for Repatriate Affairs, June 25, 1946, AAN-MAP 786, poz. 42; R. Gruenglas, "Protokol," July 5, 1946, AAN-MAP 786, poz. 45; District Jewish Committee, Czestochowa, to Central Committee of Polish Jews, July 10, 1946, AAN-MAP 787, poz. 29; L. Rakowska, "Protokol," July 9, 1946, AAN-MAP 786, poz. 53; Dos Naje Lebn, June 7, 1946 (p. 2: "Bestialisher Mord iber Yidn bay Nowy Sacz"); Jewish Telegraphic Association Daily News Bulletin, June 7, 1946.
  75. Dos Naje Lebn, June 20, 1945 (p. 1: "Di Mord-Bandes vern oisgerisn mitn Vurtsl"). For other incidents of Jews killed because of their political association, see Dos Naje Lebn, August 31, 1945 (p. 1: "Di Reaktsie vildevet on Oifher"); Provincial Jewish Committee, Katowice, to Central Committee of Polish Jews, February 4, 1946, AAN-MAP 787, poz. 186.
  76. D. Goldberg, "Protokol" June 25, 1946, AAN-MAP 787, poz. 125.
  77. The Ministry of Public Administration report on violence of September 29, 1945, noted that "of 30 attacks [examined], 11 involved robbery; 1 [took place] against the background of the return of items stolen from Jews during the occupation; 2 [took place] against the background of the reclamation of agricultural property; 2 [involved] the repossession of a home. The remaining 14 attacks are the result of Hitlerite propaganda, which during the occupation period polluted our society with the poison of racial hatred." See above, note 20.
  78. Central Jewish Committee in Warsaw, Gliwice Division, to Central Committee of Polish Jews, February 7, 1946, AAN-MAP 786, poz. 37.
  79. For additional examples of this modus operandi, see the statement by Jozef Strenger, February 19, 1946, AAN-MAP 787, poz. 38; Provincial Jewish Committee, Katowice, to Central Committee of Polish Jews, February 4, 1946, ibid., poz. 186; Regional Jewish Committee, Tarnów, to Central Committee of Polish Jews, July 4, 1946, AAN-MAP 786, poz . 49; also above, note 75.
  80. S. Margoshes to G. Keith, U.S. Embassy, Warsaw, February 12, 1946, in David Engel, “The Situation of Polish Jewry as Reflected in United States Diplomatic Documents, December 1945-July 1946,” Gal-Ed: On the History of the Jews in Poland, 14 (1995), p. 118. For further examples, see Dos Naje Lebn, June 10, 1945 (p. 1: "Mordn iber Yidn"); also above, note 66.
  81. See, for example, the observation in a field report from the Kielce province prepared in May 1945, "Sprawozdanie insp. Zeliwskiego z podrozy inspekcyjnej...," May 7-17, 1945, DRI-INV. 153/24.
  82. "Odezwa do ludnosci zydowskiej," April 3, 1945, DRI-P.21/7.7; emphasis in source. For an attestation that this leaflet was in fact distributed, see "Sprawozdanie z delegatury do Chelmu," April 4-6, 1945, IC-35/12.
  83. "Bij Zyda!", DRI-P.21/7.7.
  84. See note 73. The grenade exploded in the courtyard; none of the Jews living in the building was injured.
  85. See note 66; also "Protokol przesluchania swiadka Wilhelma Zylbermana," July 11, 1946, AAN-MAP 786, poz. 50.
  86. For contemporary descriptions of the Krakow pogrom and the events leading up to it, see, inter alia, Dos Naje Lebn, August 20, 1945 (p. 1: “Di Gesheenishn in Kroke”); “ Protokol posiedzenia Plenum Centralnego Komitetu,” August 14, 1945, IC-35/12; cable, Arthur Bliss Lane, U.S. embassy, Warsaw, to U.S. State Department, August 19, 1945 (Nr. 107), United States National Archives, Washington, RG 59/860C. 4016/9-1945. See also Hillel, Massacre, p. 126.
  87. "Polacy!", August 11 [1945], DRI-P.21/6.
  88. An example is the flyer distributed in Piaski, which was signed by a group calling itself the "Polish Anticommunist Military Organization"; see above, note 82. For additional examples, see the notice entitled "Do Zydow w Polsce," DRI-INV. 153/33, and the handbills located in DRI-P.21/7.7.
  89. "Dzien Dobry!!!", DRI-P.21/7.7.
  90. Untitled handbill in DRI-P.21/6.
  91. "Sprawozdanie z delegatury do Chelmu"; see note 82.
  92. "Sprawozdanie czlonkow Centralnego Komitetu Zydow Polskich J. Sacka i S. Fiszgrunda...," July 1, 1945, DRI-INV.153/24; "Objawy antysemityzmu..." (see note 21).
  93. Lodz provincial governor to Political Department, Ministry of Public Administration, December 18, 1945, AAN-MAP 787, poz. 139-140.
  94. “Wystapienie antyzydowskie inwalidow W.P. w Rynku Glownym w Krakowie,” March 21, 1946, AAN-MAP, 787, poz. 400.
  95. What follows does not purport to be a comprehensive discussion of the various factors influencing the level and dispersion of attacks upon Jews. Its purpose is merely to demonstrate the probable operation of factors other than those that affected violence against Polish government supporters.
  96. For the derivation of the figure, see Engel, Between Liberation and Flight, p. 165, n. 6.
  97. See Dobroszycki, Survivors of the Holocaust, pp. 67-68.
  98. See Engel, Between Liberation and Flight, pp. 120-124, 156-157.
  99. Ibid., p. 157. Concern for physical safety was only one of a number of factors driving this emigration. An extensive discussion of the origins and motives of the exodus is offered in ibid., passim. For an alternative explanation, see Gutman, Jews in Poland, pp. 44-49.
  100. The relatively low level of anti-Jewish violence between September 1945 and January 1946 was also accompanied by a substantial emigration wave. See Engel, Between Liberation and Flight, pp. 64-65.
  101. On this process, see ibid., pp. 46-47, 52-53. Avoidance also involved moving from what were initially the most dangerous areas, like the Bialystok, Lublin, and Kielce provinces, to relatively safer areas like Lodz and Silesia.
  102. "Protokol posiedzenia Prezydium Centralnego Komitetu," March 25, 1945, IC-35/12.
  103. "Protokol posiedzenia Prezydium CKZP”, July 10, 1946, ibid.
  104. These committees are described, inter alia, in a letter from Wanda [family name not given] to Adolf Berman, November 7, 1946, DRI-INV. 153/40. See also Jan T. Gross, “In the Aftermath of the Kielce Pogrom: The Special Commission of the Central Committee of Jews in Poland,” Gal-Ed: On the History of the Jews in Poland 15 (1997) pp. 119-136.
  105. In contrast, the dormant period from September 1945 to January 1946 was also a relatively quiet time for antigovernment violence.
  106. See Engel, Between Liberation and Flight, p.129.
  107. There is evidence, however, to suggest that security forces quelled incipient violence in Lignice and Miedzyrzecz in October 1946, after blood accusations began to circulate in those towns. See Arieh J. Kochavi, "The Catholic Church and Anti-Semitism in Poland Following World War II as Reflected in British Diplomatic Documents," Gal-Ed: On the History of the Jews in Poland 11 (1989), p. 120.
  108. Dobroszycki, “Restoring Jewish Life,” p. 66.
  109. "Wyciag z wydawnictwa WiN-u," August [1946], DRI-P.21/6.
  110. Excerpt from Marek Romanski, Dlaczego nie wracamy, prepared by J. Pogorzelska, KRN deputy chairman, DRI-INV.153/21. See also the document entitled "Communist Pogroms on Jews in Poland," Hoover Institution Archives, Stanford, California USA, Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, Box 40.
  111. Honor i Ojczyzna, October 1946 ("Zydzi"). Copy in DRI-P.21/7.7.
  112. On the political outlooks and programs of these groups, see Ryszard Nazarewicz, Drogi do wyzwolenia: Koncepcje walki z okupantem w Polsce i ich tresci polityczne, 1939-1945 (Warsaw: Ksiazka i Wiedza, 1979), passim.