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The Germans: "An Antisemitic People”. The Press Campaign After 9 November 1938

Herbert Obenhaus

  1. It was published in 1938 with the publisher's information, "Commissioned by Wilhelm Weiss responsible for the reports from the Reichspressestelle: Dr. Otto Dietrich, Reichspressechef of the NSDAP. The editor-in-chief responsible for the remaining contents was Helmut Suendermann. Deputy editor-in-chief was Wilhelm Ritgen." For more information on the NSK, which was established on 14 January 1932 in Munich and published in Berlin after 1 May 1933, see: Peter Stein, “Die NS-Gaupresse 1925-1933. Forschungsbericht - Quellenkritik - neue Bestandsaufnahme,” Dortmunder Beitraege zur Zeitungsforschung, 42 (1987), pp. 55 ff. I would like to thank Rebecca L. van Dyck for the translation of my contribution.
  2. Ernest K. Bramsted, Goebbels und die nationalsozialistische Propaganda 1925-1945, Frankfurt am Main, 1971, pp. 167-175, which describes the complicated distribution of tasks and the resultant tension between Goebbels and Dietrich. After 1937, the branches of the Ministry of Propaganda were called Reichspropagandaaemter; before that they were called Landesstellen.
  3. Refer to Kurt Koszyk, Deutsche Presse 1914-1945. Geschichte der deutschen Presse Teil III. Abhandlungen und Materialien zur Publizistik, Berlin, 1972, vol. 7, p. 372, according to which a breach of the rules could lead to court proceedings under the Schriftleitergesetz (Editor-in-Chief Law), or the Reichskulturkammergesetzt (Reich Chamber of Culture Law). Compare Norbert Frei and Johannes Schmitz, Journalismus im Dritten Reich, 2nd edition, Munich, 1989, pp. 30-35.
  4. For the steering of the press during the pogrom itself, refer to: Wolfgang Benz, “Der Rueckfall in die Barbarei. Bericht ueber den Pogrom,” in: Der Judenpogrom 1938. Von der "Reichskristallnacht" zum Voelkermord, Walter H. Pehle, ed., Frankfurt am Main, 1988, pp. 13-51 (specifically pp.15-19). Also Wolfgang Benz, “Der Novemberpogrom 1938,” in: Die Juden in Deutschland 1933-1945. Leben unter nationalsozialistischer Herrschaft, 3rd edition, Wolfgang Benz, ed., Munich, 1993, pp. 499-544, and pp. 505-521, a section with the heading “Die Inszenierung des Pogroms und die Regie der oeffentlichen Meinung.”
  5. Juergen Hagemann, Die Presselenkung im Dritten Reich, Bonn, 1970, pp.126 f.
  6. Minutes of a meeting held in the Reich Ministry of Aviation on 12 November 1938. Der Prozess gegen die Hauptkriegsverbrecher vor dem Internationalen Militaergerichtshof, 14. November 1945 - 1. Oktober 1946, XXVIII, Nuremberg, 1948, pp. 499-540.
  7. Two further "strategy conferences" of National Socialist leaders in the subsequent weeks were concerned with the continuation of the policies against German Jews; see Wolf Gruner, "Lesen brauchen sie nicht zu koennen....” Die Denkschrift ueber die Behandlung der Juden in der Reichshauptstadt auf allen Gebieten des צffentlichen Lebens' vom Mai 1938,” Jahrbuch fuer Antisemitismusforschung, 4 (1995), pp. 305-341 (specifically pp. 306 and 313, including footnote 80). For the individual measures, Joseph Walk, Das Sonderrecht fuer die Juden im NS-Staat. Eine Sammlung der gesetzlichen Massnahmen und Richtlinien - Inhalt und Bedeutung. Motive - Texte - Materialien, Karlsruhe, 1981.
  8. Berndt, born in 1905, was appointed head of the department in April 1936. When it was divided into domestic and foreign departments in April 1938, Berndt headed the domestic department until Hans Fritzsche, born in 1900, became his successor in December 1938; see Koszyk, Deutsche Presse, p. 363. Berndt is described as Goebbels' protegé; see Bramsted, Goebbels, p. 124.
  9. Ziegler, born in 1891, frequently wrote articles on contemporary history. From 1919 to 1932 he worked for the Reichszentrale fuer Heimatdienst and was a member of the Deutsche Volkspartei. Upon joining the Ministry of Propaganda in 1933, he took over the department concerned with the “Execution of a Uniform Reich Propaganda in the Areas of Foreign, Defense and Jewish Policy.” According to Kuerschner's German Calendar of Literature for 1943, Ziegler was a Ministerialrat in the Ministry of Propaganda. In 1941 he was appointed honorary professor for modern - specifically postwar - history in the Department of Foreign Sciences of the University of Berlin. Ziegler was the director of the Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question run by the Ministry of Propaganda. Helmut Heiber, Walter Frank und sein Reichsinstitut fuer Geschichte des neuen Deutschlands, Stuttgart, 1966, pp. 600 ff.
  10. The spokesmen's expositions have been very well documented. On the one hand, there is the report on the press conference written and signed by Kurt Metger of the German News Office. This report, no. 568/38, written in the form of a letter, was headed “Strictly confidential! For information only! Must remain secret!”: Bundesarchiv Koblenz, ZSg. 110/11/125r. On the other hand, there is the telex sent by the Berlin office of the Frankfurter Zeitung to the head office in Frankfurt: Ibid., ZSg. 102/13/30v. This topic is again taken up in the press conference of 19 November. A telex was also sent in this regard: ibid., ZSg. 102/13. In the following, I rely in particular on Metger, who wrote coherent reports. The shorter and less precise wording of the telex is only mentioned to supplement the reports. For the records, see NS-Presseweisungen der Vorkiegszeit. Edition und Dokumentation, Hans Bohrmann, ed., vol. 1, revised by Gabriele Toepser-Ziegert, Munich, 1984, pp. 53-59. The press directives for 1935, which have not yet been published, go into more detail about Kurz Metger; compare ibid., p. 53, footnote 143. Incidentally, I would like to thank Ms. Toepser-Ziegert for her friendly advice and support. In addition to the press directives from 17 and 19 November extracted from archives, I have also cited press directives from the subsequent weeks as they appear in Hagemann, Presselenkung.
  11. Telex version.
  12. For details on the special role of the Frankfurter Zeitung during the Nazi period see Bramsted, Goebbels, pp. 191-213.
  13. It was said that “over the last few days, many tips have been received,” of which the newspapers, however, had “not yet used even 5%.” It is interesting to note that Berndt's warning was also included in the telex version, which was overall much shorter.
  14. In this regard he referred to one of his own publications: Wilhelm Ziegler, Versailles, die Geschichte eines missglueckten Friedens, Hamburg, 1933. The 4th edition was published in 1937.
  15. The “basic” literary source was the book Die Juden in Deutschland, edited by the Institut zum Studium der Judenfrage, Munich, 1936. See footnote 9, above, for information on the institute. As a source of information on the role of the Jews in the labor movement, Ziegler mentioned F[ritz] O[tto] H[ermann] Schulz, Jude und Arbeiter. Ein Abschnitt aus der Tragoedie des deutschen Volkes, edited by the Institut zum Studium der Judenfrage in conjunction with the Antikomintern, Berlin, 1934. For Maximilian Harden he referred to Walter Frank, Geist und Macht. Historisch-Politische Aufsaetze, Hamburg, 1938, as well as to J. Keller and Hanns Andersen, Der Jude als Verbrecher, Berlin, 1937. In addition, Fritzsche mentioned Alfred-Ingemar Berndt, Gebt mir vier Jahre Zeit! Dokumente zum 1. Vierjahresplan des Fuehrers, 5th and 6th edition, Munich, 1938, which contained a "lot of material on the Jews in Germany.” The book by Keller and Andersen had already found its way into several editorial offices even prior to the press conference of 17 November. Thus in its edition of 12/13 November, the Stader Tageblatt made reference to the publication by Keller and Andersen in an editorial on the assassination of Ernst vom Rath. Wolfgang Fehrmann, “Die Waffe des Juden ist der Mord! Im ewigen Hass gegen das deutsche Volk,” ibid. The author concerns himself with the character stereotype of the Jews as “fundamentally and basically criminal,” their tendency "to murder,” which in turn “corresponds to their negation of the rules and their anarchistic mentality, both of which stem from an inherent tendency towards Bolshevism.” That previous August, the Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question had already pointed out the high proportion of Jewish criminals. The Helmstedter Kreisblatt published an article on this topic on 11 August 1938: “Die Juden in der Kriminalistik. 50mal soviel Rechtsbrecher aus dem Judentum.’
  16. As per the press conference of 24 November 1938: Hagemann, Presselenkung, p. 149. In the press conference of 25 November 1938, the participants were “reminded of the Jewish question, as will daily be the case from now on.” ibid., p. 143.
  17. Taken from Joseph Goebbels' diaries. Entry of 17 November 1938: Elke Froehlich, Die Tagebuecher von Joseph Goebbels. Saemtliche Fragmente, part 1, vol. 3, Munich, 1987, p. 535.
  18. Froehlich, Tagebuecher, p. 537, entry of 18 November 1938.
  19. Froehlich, p. 540, entry of 24 November 1938. After this date, Goebbels no longer mentioned the "campaign against the Jews" in his journals. Hagemann, Presselenkung, p. 127, justifiably refers to "anti-Jewish propaganda" as the "topic of the winter of 1938-39.”
  20. Hagemann, Presselenkung, p. 149.
  21. William Sheridan Allen, “Die deutsche Oeffentlichkeit und die “Reichskristallnacht” - Konflikte zwischen Werthierarchie und Propaganda im Dritten Reich,” in: Die Reihen fest geschlossen. Beitraege zur Geschichte des Alltags unter dem Nationalsozialismus, Detlev Peukert and Juergen Reulecke, eds., Wuppertal, 1981, pp. 397-411, specifically pp. 402 ff. David Bankier, Die oeffentliche Meinung im Hitler-Staat. Die "Endloesung" und die Deutschen. Eine Berichtigung, Berlin, 1995, pp. 118-122.
  22. Wording of the telex. The rioting associated with the pogrom "continued until 13 November in some places." Benz, Rueckfall, p. 32. In the press conference of 14 November 1938, Hans Fritzsche makes reference to the statement Goebbels had made the previous day “that from now on, the antisemitic demonstrations against Jewish shops must come to an end.” In a matter of "a few weeks,” there would not be any shops left anyway. Two days prior to that, an interview on the same subject had been granted to a representative of Reuter, Joseph Wulf, Presse und Funk im Dritten Reich. Eine Dokumentation, Frankfurt am Main, 1989, p. 104.
  23. Repeated during the press conference of 18 November 1938: Hagemann, Presselenkung, p. 149.
  24. On this occasion, the Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger is praised for having published an article the previous day on "English colonial methods.” The atrocities committed by the English during the Boer War, in Palestine and in the American War of Independence had already been denounced in the press conference of 15 November 1938 and compared with "a couple" of windowpanes that had been broken on 9 November, Hagemann, Presselenkung, p. 148.
  25. Wording of the telex.
  26. A call for describing in detail the antisemitism of other governments had already appeared in a press directive dated 17 May 1938, Hagemann, Presselenkung, p. 146.
  27. Hagemann, Presselenkung, p. 126, writes, that the “emphasis of the unfriendly treatment of the Jews in other countries” was to be understood as “justification of the rioting during the ‘Reichskristallnacht’.”
  28. “Der Feind aller Voelker,” NSK issue no. 289. There is no date for this issue. It either appeared with no. 288 on 9 December 1938, a Friday, perhaps on 10 December 1938, a Saturday, or else together with no. 390 on 12 December 1938, a Monday.
  29. Series Der Prozess gegen die Hauptkriegsverbrecher vor dem Internationalen Militaergerichtshof 32, Nuremberg, 1948, pp. 234-245. Circular directive by the Foreign Office to its agencies abroad, 25 January 1939: Akten zur deutschen auswaertigen Politik 1918- 1945, Series D (1937-1945), Volume 5, Baden-Baden, 1953, no.664. The circular directive was signed by Legationsrat 1st Class Emil Johannes Schumburg. For more information on his career with the Foreign Office see, Akten zur deutschen auswaertigen Politik 1918-1945. Aus dem Archiv des Auswaertigen Amtes, Supplement to the series A-E, Goettingen, 1995, p. 506. A statement issued by the Office of the Reichsfuehrer SS and Chief of the German Police on 19 april 1944 says that Schumburg had been “a kind of liaison officer to the RSHA for some time.” SS Officer’s File, Bundesarchiv Berlin, PK (formerly BDC), Schumburg, Emil, d.o.b. 14 May 1898. The close link to the practice of expelling the Jews is evident by the direct reference made to the looting of the Jews before their expulsion as beneficial to foreign policy. Thus, the Foreign Office emphasized that “the poorer and therefore more burdensome the immigrating Jew is for the immigration country, the more strongly the host country will react, and the more desirable the effect will be in the interest of German propaganda.” There are indications that in the winter of 1938-39, both Hitler and Himmler had hoped to be able to "export" German antisemitism: Hermann Graml, Reichskristallnacht. Antisemitismus und Judenverfolgung im Dritten Reich, Munich, 1988, pp. 189 f.
  30. Compare Allen, Deutsche Oeffentlichkeit, p. 402.
  31. Fritzsche announced that the special issue would be "published somewhat later than usual and only be finished in the course of the morning.” He recommended "making broad use" of the special issue, which was then published on 18 November 1938 as issue no. 270. The contributors to the special issue were listed on the last page; however, the individual articles are not expressly attributed to them (with the exception of the article written by J[oerg] R[ehoff], p. 13). The NSK issue no. 279, dated 29 November 1938, announced that the "great" special issue, which had sold out in the meantime, would be reissued.
  32. “Israels Feldzug gegen das Reich,” ibid., p. 3.
  33. Ibid., pp. 27 f.
  34. “Judas wirtschaftliches Schuldkonto: Gauner, Luegner, Spekulanten, Diebe,” ibid., pp. 28 f. Central in this regard are the articles: “Judenmanoever in der Landwirtschaft: Ernte ohne Saat,” pp. 32 f., and “Bauerngueter in juedischer Hand: Raubzug gegen deutschen Boden,” .ibid., pp. 33 f.
  35. The German title: Die Judenverschwoerung in Frankreich, Dresden, 1938; see also NSK issue no. 267 dated 13 November 1938.
  36. “Keiner will sie haben ... ‘Judenauslese’ in den Vereinigten Staaten,” NSK issue no. 269 dated 16 November 1938.
  37. “Wie lebt der Jude in Deutschland? Die Luege vom ‘armen Juden’,” NSK issue no. 268 dated 15 November 1938.
  38. NSK issue no. 270, p. 18.
  39. “Grossdeutsche Rechtspolitik 1938,” NSK issue no. 304 dated 29 December 1938, supplement: “Das Deutsche Recht.”
  40. The conference of the Reichspropagandaamt Ost-Hannover, held in Luneburg on 9-11 December 1938, is an example of such a meeting. Dr. Wilhelm Ziegler of the Reich Ministry of Propaganda gave a lecture on the topic “The Solution of the Jewish Problem.” “Die Loesung des Judenproblems. Vortrag von Pg. Wilhelm Ziegler auf der Presse- und Propagandatagung in Lueneburg,” Cellesche Zeitung, 12 December 1938.
  41. See Heiber, Walter Frank, pp. 627-630. The opening lecture given by Walter Frank, which was also broadcast on radio, was on the subject “Dreyfus - the Wandering Jew.” A further nine speakers from the Institute held talks at the university every evening. According to Heiber, attendance "was unusually high, considering this was a scientific lecture series." p. 628.
  42. Hans Timner, “Zwei Welten. Dem ewigen Ahasver gegenueber - Gedanken bei einem Rundgang durch die aktuellste Ausstellung,” NSK 285 (6 December 1938), pp. 4f. For more on the travelling exhibition, which was also shown in Dresden on 24 March 1939 after shows in Munich, Vienna, Berlin and Bremen, see: Victor Klemperer, Ich will Zeugnis ablegen bis zum letzten. Tagebuecher 1933-1941, 5th edition, Berlin, 1996, p. 467 including footnote. The poster announcing the exhibition appears in: Wir schritten durch eine schweigende Stadt.
  43. Press conference of 22 November 1938: Hagemann, Presselenkung, p. 149. Berndt reported on the Minister's dissatisfaction.
  44. Ibid., 21 November 1938; ibid., 24 November 1938: “Israels Feldzug gegen das Reich. Revolte, Versklavung, Kriegshetze, Boykott und Mord” (with the key words "Jewish subversive activity" during the First World War, sabotage by Jewish Bolsheviks the signing of the Treaty of Versailles by Jews, organization of an economic boycott, as well as propaganda against Nazi Germany), and 25 November 1938: “Juedischer Raub! Das Bauerntum einst in Judas Klauen” ibid., 26/27 November 1938: “Mit Stumpf und Stiel ausgerottet. So wurde Literatur im juedischen Sumpf gemacht” (the central theme is “the Jewish control of German cultural life in its entirety”).
  45. Der Affe des Menschen,” Helmstedter Kreisblatt, 19-20 November 1938 (with the key sentence: "There is no community between the Jews and the Europeans!"); “Aus dem Ghetto in die Welt,” 21 November 1938; “Raffsucht als Leitmotiv,” 22 November 1938; “Mitleid ist Verrat. Nicht als Verfolger des Judentums fuehren wir diesen Kampf, sondern als Wahrer unseres Volkstums,” 30 November 1938.
  46. “Juedische Schiebungen von riesigem Ausmass Juedischer “Diamantenklub” schmuggelt fuer 150 Millionen RM. Diamanten,” 18 November 1938; “Lieder, auf die wir verzichten. Juedische Autoren” (proof that many traditional German songs had been composed by Jews), “Allein in Berlin 200 juedische Millionaere. Der Bluff mit den ausgepluenderten Juden - Zahlen gegen Maerchen,” 17 November 1938.
  47. “Luther entlarvt die Juden,” 22 November 1938. In general, Martin Luther was very useful. Compare, e.g. “Ein Wort Martin Luthers,” Helmstedter Kreisblatt, 23 November 1938. Also Ernst Ludwig Ehrlich, “Luther und die Juden,” in: Antisemitismus. Von der Judenfeindschaft zum Holocaust, Herbert A. Strauss and Norbert Kampe, eds., Frankfurt, 1985, pp. 47-65.
  48. A later article can presumably be attributed to a suggestion by the Ministry of Propaganda: “Kriminalitaet des Judentums. In Deutschland steldie Juden 73 v. H. an den abgeurteilten Verbrechen,” Stader Tageblatt, 24 November 1938.
  49. “Antijuedische Massnahmen in aller Welt,” Helmstedter Kreisblatt, 17 November 1938, with the subheadings: “Konzentrationslager in Belgien, Antisemitische Welle in Amerika.” Further news in brief: “Wie die Juden die Voelker aussaugten” - “Ein Aufruf der Antijuedischen Sammelbewegung Frankreichs” - “Das ‘arme’ Volk Israels” (with a report on Jewish large property owners in Berlin, who had been registered in accordance with the regulation dated 26 February 1938). This continued with a collective report under the heading: “Ueberall werden die Juden abgewiesen. Immer neue juedische Abwehrmassnahmen,“ 18 November 1938. “Politik der verschlossenen Tuer. 650 000 Juden aus Deutschland auswanderungsbereit, USA will sie nicht,” 2-6 December 1938.
  50. “Juedischer Raub! Das Bauerntum einst in Judas Klauen,” Stader Tageblatt, 25 September 1938.
  51. “Gerechte Strafe fuer juedische Betrueger,” Stader Tageblatt, 12 December 1938.
  52. “Juden im Mittelalter. Aus Chroniken der deutschen Staedte,” Helmstedter Kreisblatt, 6 December 1938.
  53. Oskar Trautmann, “Was alte Chroniken erzaehlen. Judenaustreibungen in alter Zeit - Unschuldig verfolgt? Nein - schuldig geworden!,” Helmstedter Kreisblatt, 13 January 1938.
  54. “Die Juden im Jahre 1825. Eine Verordnung der Landdrostei Stade,” Helmstedter Kreisblatt, 22 November 1938.
  55. “Juedischer Raeuberstreich vor 240 Jahren. Juedische Gangsterbande beraubte die Goldene Tafel,” Stader Tageblatt, 15 December 1938. ”Juedischer Raeuberstreich vor 240 Jahren. Nickel List u. Co. raubten die Goldene Tafel,” Helmstedter Kreisblatt, 20 December 1938. For the historical context showing a case of antisemitic journalism in 1699 see: Hans-Dieter Schmid, “Das schwer zu bekehrende Juden-Hertz." Juedische Unterschicht und christlicher Antisemitismus am Beispiel des Celler Stadtpredigers Sigismund Hosemann,” in: Christen und Juden. Ein notwendiger Dialog, Peter Antes et al., eds., Hanover, 1988, pp. 39- 60.
  56. “Und heute!,” ibid.; “30 juedische Millionaere in Hamburg,” ibid.
  57. Hans Mauersberg, born in 1910, received his doctorate from the University of Berlin. His dissertation carried the title Besiedlung und Bevoelkerung des ehemals hennebergischen Amtes Schleusingen, Wurzburg, 1938. He subsequently wrote Beitraege zur Bevoelkerungsund Sozialgeschichte Niedersachsens. Studien zur Volkskoerperforschung Niedersachsens. Veroeffentlichungen aus dem Rassenpolitischen Amt der NSDAP, Gau Suedhannover-Braunschweig, vol. 1, Hanover, 1938. The director of the Rassenpolitisches Amt was Hans-Helmut Rehkopf, who co-published this series of works with Mauersberg. Mauersberg qualified as a university lecturer in 1962 at the University of Munich. His main areas of work are given as economic, population and social history: Kuerschners Deutscher Gelehrten-Kalender, 11th edition, Berlin, 1970, pp. 1891; 12th edition, Berlin, 1976, p. 2028.
  58. “Die Geschichte des Judentums in Niedersachsen. Im 12. Jahrhundert kommen sie als ‘Emigranten,’ erringen bedeutende Macht und werden wieder vertrieben,” Niedersaechsische Tageszeitung, 28 December 1938; “Wie die Juden sich wieder im Lande breitmachten. Das Wiedererstarken des Judentums in Niedersachsen vom Beginn der Neuzeit bis zur Emigration,” Niedersaechsische Tageszeitung, 29 December 1938; “Judas Weg zum Hoehepunkt seiner Macht. Die Emanzipation des Judentums und ihr Durchbruch zur Macht im 19. Jahrhundert,” Niedersaechsische Tageszeitung, 30 December 1938. All articles included antisemitic drawings by Rolf Wilde. I occasionally rearranged the quotes.
  59. Peter Stein, Die nordostniedersaechsische Tagespresse. Von den Anfaengen bis 1945. Ein Handbuch, Stade, 1994, p. 157.
  60. “Die Geschichte der Juden in Celle,” published in five episodes with alternating subheadings: “Schon 1530 ‘Zwei Jodden’ - Man weiss nicht, woher sie kamen - Kontrolle ueber Kontrolle,” Celler Beobachter, 10 January 1939; “Hauserwerb und Belastung des Besitzes durch Steuern und Abgaben,” ibid., 11 January 1939; “Handel und Erwerbsverhaeltnisse: ‘Kommerziell’ bevorzugt - Was war juedische Handelsware? - Einheimische und fremde Juden - Eine interessante Statistik,” ibid., 12 January 1939; “Religioeser Gegensatz - Judentaufen - Die Sabbatruhe - Schulen und Synagogen - Wenn zwei heiraten wollten,” ibid., 13 January 1939; “Der Judenfriedhof - Kultur und Kunst - Liberalist Salomo Philipp Gans,” ibid., 14/15 January 1939. Von Boehn, who held the job title of Retired State Garden Inspector, had been commissioned in 1935 by the City of Celle - at the request of the State Academy for the Cultivation of Race and Hygiene in Dresden - to write his article. The Academy had planned to publish a history of the Jews in German cities, which, however, was never realized. See “Innerstaedtische Korrespondenzen im Stadtarchiv Celle 1 D 23a.” Heiber mentions the State Academy, p. 423. Von Boehn's article, by the way, was reprinted in Zur Geschichte der Juden in Celle. Festschrift zur Wiederherstellung der Synagoge, Celle, 1974, pp. 9-15. This book, published by the City of Celle, cited the source of the article: the Celler Beobachter. The following comment, characteristic for the city's self-image, appeared on p. 16: “It is typical of the attitude of the population of Celle towards the Jews in the period after 1933 that such an article could have been written - a careful and objective article that strictly adheres to the records of the City Archives - above all, however, that it could have been published in its original form in a daily newspaper.” After a number of .objections, this passage was removed from a later edition of the publication without comment.
  61. One of the subheadings, for example, read “Konkurrent ‘Billig’ ist da!” (trade disagreements between Jewish and non-Jewish businessmen in Celle during the 17th century). Another subheading read “Die ueppigen Judenweiber” (the focus was on the wide hoop skirts that had to be removed at “school” as they took up too much space.)
  62. See Dr. Wilhelm Ziegler in the conference of the Reichspropagandaamt Ost-Hannover from 9-11 December 1938: “What is happening today in Germany and in other countries ... is not occurring for the first time in the history of Judaism and other people:” “Die Loesung des Judenproblems. Vortrag von Pg. Ziegler auf der Presse- und Propagandatagung in Lueneburg,” Cellesche Zeitung, 12 December 1938.
  63. Everhard Holtmann and Winfried Killisch, Lokale Identitaet und Gemeindegebietsreform. Der Streitfall Ermershausen. Empirische Untersuchungen ueber Erscheinungsformen und Hintergruende oertlichen Protestverhaltens in einer unterfraenkischen Landgemeinde, Erlangen, 1991, pp. 48-50. On the connection between political interests and political concern on the one hand, and the affinity with and feelings for heimat on the other hand, see: Heiner Treinen, “Symbolische Ortsbezogenheit. Eisoziologische Untersuchung zum Heimatproblem,” .Koelner Zeitschrift fuer Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 17 (1965), pp. 73-97, 254-297.
  64. Herbert und Sibylle Obenaus, eds., "Schreiben, wie es wirklich war ... Aufzeichnungen Karl .Duerkefaeldens aus den Jahren 1933-1945,” Hanover, 1983, p. 90.
  65. “Antisemitisches Volk. Die deutsche Geschichte widerlegt Auslandshetze - Zur neuen NSK -Artikelserie,” NSK 282, (2 December 1938), pp. 3ff. The article carries the initials of the .deputy editor-in-chief of the NSK Wilhelm Ritgen; see footnote 1, above.
  66. Ibid.
  67. “Antisemitisches Volk (I): Die Judengesetze der Germanenkoenige. Abwehr und Erkennung der Judengefahr in fruehester Zeit. Das ‘Westgotische Gesetz' verbot Ehen mit Juden,” ibid., pp. 4 f.
  68. “Antisemitisches Volk (II),” H[einz] Ballensiefen, “Nackt moeget ihr ausziehen!” Wachsende Volksauflehnung gegen die Juden im fruehen Mittelalter - Schutzbriefe als Dokumente voelkischen Widerstandes gegen die Ausbeuter - Die Gunst der Fuersten ergaunert,” NSK 283, (3 December 1938), pp. 3. In 1941, Ballensiefen worked for SS-Standartenfuehrer Franz Alfred Six in Office VII, "Ideological Research and Evaluation,” of the RSHA. His department VII B 1 was responsible for "Freemasonry and Judaism.” In 1944 - he had received his doctorate and been promoted to the rank of SS-Hauptsturmfuehrer in the meantime - his field of activity was in Hungary. Here, among other things, he controlled the Hungarian Institute for the Research of the Jewish Question, which he had co-founded: Juergen Matthaeus, “Weltanschauliche Forschung und Auswertung.” Aus den Akten des Amtes VII im Reichssicherheitshauptamt,” Jahrbuch fuer Antisemitismusforschung, 5 (1996), pp. 287-330, specifically pp. 290 f. The documents published herein also deal with Ballensiefen's scientific work.
  69. “Antisemitisches Volk (III), Volksempoerung gegen Judenpest. Wie stand das deutsche Volk im Mittelalter zur Judenfrage? - Gemeinsame Auflehnung gegen schamlose Ausbeutung .- Voelkischer Instinkt weckte drastische Massnahmen,” NSK 284 (4 December 1938), pp. 5ff.
  70. “Antisemitisches Volk (IV),: H[einz] B[allensiefen], Koenige gegen Hofjuden. Deutsche Fuersten beschraenken ‘juedische Rechte’ - Jeder starke Koenig war Judengegner, jeder schwache Judenknecht – ‘Ich kenne keine aergere Pest’," NSK 286 (7 December 1938). pp. 5f.
  71. “Antisemitisches Volk (V),” H[einz] B[allensiefen], Staatsbuergerrechte gegen Volkswillen. Volksauflehnung gegen die Judenemanzipation - Auch getarnt stets erkannt - Juedische .Ausbeutung der Freiheitskriege,” NSK 288, (9 December 1938), pp. 4ff.
  72. “Antisemitisches Volk (VI),” H[einz] B[allensiefen], Erfuellung nach jahrhundertelangem Kampf. Von Judas Sieg zu seiner Bezwingung durch den Nationalsozialismus. Religioese Tarnung und rassische Erkenntnis - Die Sprecher des Volkswillens im 19. Jahrhundert,” NSK 291, (13 December 1938), pp. 1ff.
  73. NSK 282 (2 December 1938), pp. 3 f.
  74. Karen Schoenwaelder, “Akademischer Antisemitismus. Die deutschen Historiker in der NSZeit,” Jahrbuch fuer Antisemitismusforschung, 2 (1993), pp. 200-229, specifically pp. 213 f. For more details on this topic, see: Karen Schoenwaelder, Historiker und Politik, Geschichtswissenschaft im Nationalsozialismus, Frankfurt am Main, 1992.
  75. M. Rainer Lepsius, “Das Erbe des Nationalsozialismus und die politische Kultur der Nachfolgestaaten des ‘Grossdeutschen Reiches’,” in: Kultur und Gesellschaft, Max Haller, Hans-J. Hoffmann-Nowotny and Wolfgang Zapf, eds., commissioned by the German, Austrian and Swiss Society for Sociology, Frankfurt am Main, 1989, pp. 247-264, specifically pp. 253f.
  76. Hans Mommsen, “Die Funktion des Antisemitismus im ‘Dritten Reich.' Das Beispiel des Novemberprogroms,” in: Antisemitismus. Von religioeser Judenfeindschaft zur Rassenideologie, Guenther Brakelmann and Martin Rosowski, eds., Goettingen 1989, pp. .179-192, specifically p. 184.
  77. Ernst Guenter Dickmann, “Was gehen mich die Juden an? Der Volksgenosse und die Judenfrage - Gruendliche Aufklaerung bis zum letzten Mann,” NSK 280 (30 November 1938), pp. 2ff.
  78. For more details on the consequences of this distance, see Mommsen, “Funktion des .Antisemitismus,” p. 183.
  79. Mommsen, “Funktion des Antisemitismus,” p. 3.
  80. Ibid.
  81. Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners. Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust, London, 1996, p. 23. A further analysis of Goldhagen can be omitted here as his notions of the “ordinary German,” which are strangely similar to those of an “antisemitic people,” have already been analyzed in depth: Ruth Bettina Birn and Volker Riess, “Das Goldhagen Phaenomen oder: Fuenfzig Jahre danach,” Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht, 49 (1988), pp. 80-95.
  82. NSK 265, p. 2.
  83. See Mommsen, “Funktion des Antisemitismus,” p. 183, who writes that among the working class, antisemitism plays “virtually no role whatsoever.” See Rosemarie Leuschen-Seppel, “Arbeiterbewegung und Antisemitismus,” in: Antisemitismus. Von religioeser Judenfeindschaft zur Rassenideologie, Guenther Brakelmann and Martin Rosowski, eds., Goettingen 1989, pp. 77-96.
  84. Compare the list of social groups that criticized the anti-Jewish politics of the regime: Ian Kershaw, “German Popular Opinion and the ‘Jewish Question,' 1939-1943: Some further Questions,” in: Die Juden im Nationalsozialistischen Deutschland/The Jews in Nazi Germany 1933-1943, Arnold Paucker, ed., Tuebingen, 1986, pp. 365-86, specifically pp. 369 f., 383. See also Bankier, Oeffentliche Meinung, pp. 123-138.
  85. Reference to this can be found in Mommsen, “Funktion des Antisemitismus,” p. 186.
  86. Max Domarus, Hitler. Reden und Proklamationen 1932-1945, Munich, 1965, vol. 2, p. 1058.