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Babi Yar

Babi Yar Ravine, 1944 Babi Yar Ravine, 1944 Yad Vashem Photo Collection, 4147/102 Order for Kiev's Jews to assemble near Babi Yar, September 26, 1941 Order for Kiev's Jews to assemble near Babi Yar, September 26, 1941 GARF 7021-65-5, copy YVA JM/19961

Between September 24 and 28, 1941, several days after the beginning of the German occupation of Kiev, explosives planted by Soviet NKVD saboteurs destroyed several buildings used by the German occupying authorities, including the building of the field commandant's office. On September 26, 1941, at a meeting called by the field commandant of Kiev, Major-General Kurt Eberhard, it was decided that the Jews of the city should be held responsible for the explosions. On September 28, 2,000 copies (printed by the 637th Wehrmacht Motorized Propaganda Company) of an order in Russian, Ukrainian, and German were posted throughout the city of Kiev. The order required “all the kikes” of the city of Kiev to come on the following day, September 29, early in the morning, to the corner of Melnikova and Dokterivskaya (sic for Dekhtyarivska) Streets near the Orthodox and Jewish cemeteries on the northern outskirts of Kiev, taking with them their documents, money, valuables, warm clothes, and underwear -- supposedly to be resettled. The Jews who came to the gathering point were marched toward the Babi Yar ravine. On the flat ground overlooking the ravine the victims were forced to strip naked and then either to stand on the slope of the ravine and be machine-gunned to death, with their bodies falling into the ravine, or to descend the slope into the ravine, to lie face down and be shot in the back of the head. The perpetrators of this massacre, which continued on September 30 and claimed the lives of about 30,000 Jews, were members of Sonderkommando 4a of Einsatzgruppe C, assisted by members of the 45th Reserve and 303rd Order Police Battalions and by Ukrainian auxiliaries.
Those Jews who were not murdered during the two-day massacre of late September 1941 were locked up in garages on Melnikova Street near Babi Yar. These Jews were murdered in Babi Yar by members of Einsatzkommando 5 on October 1-3, 1941.
The Jews who had managed to hide during these massacres but were later handed over by their non-Jewish neighbors or arrested by Wehrmacht soldiers or German or local auxiliary policemen, were taken to the Security Police prison, from which they were taken to Babi Yar and murdered in gas vans. Their bodies were thrown into the ravine. Jews from nearby localities, such as Brovary, were also brought to Babi Yar and shot there.
Soviet Jewish prisoners of war and Jewish civilian prisoners who had been held in special detention camps in Kiev since late September 1941 were also taken (in groups of several dozen people) to Babi Yar and shot dead. In the course of the Nazi occupation many non-Jews, including Soviet prisoners of war, Roma, and people accused of anti-German activities were also murdered at the Babi Yar ravine. According to various estimates the total number of victims at Babi Yar was about 70,000.
Dina Levina was born in 1927 in Kiev and lived there during the war years
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Dina Levina was born in 1927 in Kiev and lived there during the war years
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