Arthur Nebe (1894 - 1945) was Head of the German Criminal Police and commander of an Einsatzgruppe unit. In 1920 Nebe was accepted into the criminal police, and in 1923, he became a criminal police commander. Nebe joined the SS, the Nazi Party, and the SA in 1931. In April 1933 Nebe was moved to the gestapo, and over the next few years he rose rapidly through the ranks of the SS. In June 1937 he became director of the Reich criminal police (KRIPO) for all of Germany. Nebe continued to rise in rank; at the same time, he got involved with the secret anti-Hitler opposition movement, for which he became an important informer. In mid-1941 Nebe volunteered to head an Einsatzgruppe---one of the mobile killing units that led the extermination of more than one million Jews in the Soviet Union. Nebe commanded Einsatzgruppe B until October 1941. He played a significant role in making killing methods more efficient. Under his command the unit killed over 45,000 people.


After a bid to assassinate Hitler failed in July 1944, Nebe helped round up the schemers, but three days later he himself disappeared. In January 1945 he faked suicide, but was soon arrested for his part in the assassination attempt. He was sentenced to death, and hanged on April 3.