• Menu

  • Shop

  • Languages

  • Accessibility
Visiting Info
Opening Hours:

Sunday to Thursday: ‬09:00-17:00

Fridays and Holiday eves: ‬09:00-14:00

Yad Vashem is closed on Saturdays and all Jewish Holidays.

Entrance to the Holocaust History Museum is not permitted for children under the age of 10. Babies in strollers or carriers will not be permitted to enter.

Drive to Yad Vashem:
For more Visiting Information click here

Beyond the Main Perpetrators: Non-German Camps for Jews During the Holocaust

Prof. Dan Michman

The phenomenon of camps used by governments to forcibly incarcerate civilians – its own citizens, aliens or natives in occupied countries – did not begin with Nazi Germany; rather, it is a notable trend of modern centralized states that began to evolve at the end of the nineteenth century. The use of this tool of oppression and terror expanded and accelerated under the totalitarian states from the 1920s, and in Nazi Germany it reached an unprecedented extent. The number of camps of all kinds – "reeducation camps," transit camps, forced labor camps, and concentration and extermination camps – already before but especially during WWII numbered more than 40,000. During the Third Reich period, the term concentration camp – KL, or often KZ – turned itself into an effective threat used by the authorities.

Leo Kok (1923-1945), "Boulevard des Misères", Westerbork Camp, 1944
Leo Kok (1923-1945), "Boulevard des Misères", Westerbork Camp, 1944

Men producing straw baskets at the slave labor camp in Jasenovac, Yugoslavia
Men producing straw baskets at the slave labor camp in Jasenovac, Yugoslavia

A kindergarten in the labor camp in Sered, Slovakia
A kindergarten in the labor camp in Sered, Slovakia

ResearchAntisemitism