In certain Nazi-controlled areas of Europe, the persecution of Jews by people who knew them often did not begin with the murder, but rather was part of the landscape of the developing persecution. Children in particular suffered at the hands of the former playmates and teachers. In occupied France before the mass murders began, Jewish businessmen were denounced by their French rivals in order to ensure that their companies be shut down or "Aryanized." In Hungary, before the wave of deportations to the extermination camps in 1944, tens of thousands of Jewish forced laborers met their deaths on the Eastern Front owing to a large extent to Hungarian policies and brutal treatment by Hungarian soldiers, who served with them over a long period and were responsible for them. So explained Yad Vashem Libraries Director Dr. Robert Rozett in the opening lecture of the International Holocaust Research Institute's 2018 summer workshop, "Your Brother's Blood Cries Out to Me".
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