was hidden by a Polish family
in Katowice from 1942 until the end
of the war. Janina was photographed
en route to her baptism in 1944
Ita Keller was adopted by a Pole,
Tadeusz Kobilko, who was
subsequently awarded the title of
Righteous Among the Nations.
Lvov, Poland, 1943
Marian Kaufman (upper row, center),
with the gypsy family that sheltered
her in Holland during the war
Tens of thousands of Jews sought shelter in lofts, cellars, bunkers, sewers, and similar places. Many equipped themselves with forged papers, while children were often concealed with Christian families. The survival ratio was low: most fugitives were discovered and murdered. The number of Jews who survived by going underground is estimated in the thousands.