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Yad Vashem A Jewish Community in the Carpathian Mountains- The Story of Munkács

The History of the Munkács Community Before the Holocaust

  • A Pledge and a Purpose
  • Jewish personalities in Munkács, 1898
  • Jews playing cards – a postcard from Munkács, 1900
  • Jews talking – a postcard from Munkács, 1900
  • Bridge over the Latorica River, Munkács
  • Market in Munkács, 1910
  • The main street and market square in Munkács, 1879
  • The Aron family in their garden in Munkács, 1939-1940: parents Sidi and Ference and daughters Olga (right) and Marta. The girls survived, immigrated to Israel and settled in Netanya.
  • The Hoyzman family in their garden in Munkács, 1930s: parents Roszi and Soma , daughter Anci, son Zvi-Imre (Imi). Roszi, Soma and Anci were murdered in the Holocaust. Zvi-Imre came to Eretz Israel and was killed in an Etzel operation in 1948.
  • Moshe Wolf Rosenberg in Munkács, before the war. Moshe, son of Rabbi Nachman and Lea Rachel, was a shochet (ritual slaughterer). He married Rochel Braune née Gross. They had 11 children, of which only three survived the war: Israel, Pearle and Boszi.
  • Jewish Klezmer musicians in the interwar period in Munkács
  • Rabbi Chaim Elazar Shapira of Munkács, chief rabbi and head of the Beit Din and yeshiva, speaking with one of his students. Rabbi Shapira passed away on 2 Sivan 5697 (1937)
  • Lily Hochman – student certificate from the Munkács Hebrew Gymnasium, 1942/43

The town of Munkács lies on the banks of the Latorica River, in the district of Subcarpathian Rus'. Until the end of WWI, Munkács was situated in the Hungarian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Following the Chmielnicki Pogroms, a few Jews immigrated from Galicia and Ukraine to the area, initiating the Jewish community in Munkács and its peripheries. A certificate from 1649 attests to a Jew leasing property in Munkács, thereby achieving permission to settle in the area. For the next forty years, the Jews of Munkács leased licenses from the authorities for selling liquor, meat, candles and soap, and for grinding produce and transporting wood to the port of Danzig.

Substantial Jewish settlement in Munkács began at the beginning of the 18th century. In 1718, there were five Jewish homes – 25 Jews – among them a shochet (ritual slaughterer). In 1741, the Jewish community was established in the area, numbering some 80 souls. That same year, the first synagogue of the town was also established.

The online exhibition was made possible through the generous support of:

Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany

The Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany works to secure compensation and restitution for survivors of the Holocaust.

Since 1951, the Claims Conference - working in partnership with the State of Israel - has negotiated for and distributed payments from Germany, Austria, other governments, and certain industry; recovered unclaimed German Jewish property; and funded programs to assist the neediest Jewish victims of Nazism.