The International School for Holocaust Studies
New Yad Vashem Publications
- Yad Vashem Studies 35/2
- I Have Been a Stranger in a Strange Land – The Hungarian State and Jewish Refugees in Hungary, 1933-1945
- Besa: A Code of Honor – Muslim Albanians who Rescued Jews During the Holocaust
Edited by David Silberklang
This issue is dedicated to the memory of the late Professor Raul Hilberg, and includes an article by Christopher Browning analyzing Hilberg's approach to Holocaust study, as well as Hilberg's own lecture given in 2004 at Yad Vashem. This issue also includes articles on events during the Holocaust in the USSR and Hungary; postwar approaches to the Holocaust in three different societies: the Soviet Union, Israeli ultra-Orthodox society, and young adults in Germany; Nowogrodek – The Story of a Shtetl (Yehuda Bauer); Hungarian Soldiers and Jews on the Eastern Front (Judit Pihurik); Soviet Reactions to the Eichmann Trial (Nati Cantorovich); and review articles.
I Have Been a Stranger in a Strange Land – The Hungarian State and Jewish Refugees in Hungary, 1933-1945
This book focuses on the policies of the Hungarian state toward the estimated twenty- to twenty-five thousand Jewish refugees who lived in Hungary over the twelve-year period of the Third Reich, from 1933 to 1945. In contrast to the dominant theory which states that the deportation of the Hungarian Jews is directly linked with the German occupation of Hungary, this study demonstrates that a Hungarian state "dejewification commando" had existed prior to German occupation. The National Central Alien Control Office, affiliated with the Ministry of Interior, regarded the category of foreign Jews living in Hungary – primarily refugees – as one that could be enlarged at will to include all Jews, irrespective of citizenship. Those on these lists were deemed "undesirable" by the Hungarian state, and thus targeted for removal from the country. This policy led to the Galician deportations of 1941-42 that resulted in the first five-digit massacre of Jews during World War II.
Photography by Norman Gershman; Exhibition Curator: Yehudit Shendar
Following the German occupation in 1943, the Albanian population refused to comply with German demands to turn over lists of Jews residing within the country's borders, in an extraordinary humanitarian act. The remarkable assistance afforded to the Jews was grounded in Besa, a code of honor, which still today serves as the highest ethical code in the country.