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The International School for Holocaust Studies

Echoes and Reflections

Lesson 9

Perpetrators, Collaborators and Bystanders


In this lesson, you examine the complex issues of justice, guilt, and responsibility within the context of the Holocaust. You also learn about war crimes trials following World War II and consider the responsibility of the free world to provide a safe haven for refugees attempting to escape from Nazi Europe. Below you will find additional information on many of the topics you study in this lesson.

Jan Karski In this lesson, you meet Jan Karski. For more information about him, click here.

In this lesson, you meet Regina Zielinski. To learn about the fate of Regina's family during the Holocaust, click on the pages of testimony identified with

Regina ZielinskiFamily tree

In this lesson, you meet Brigitte Altman. To learn about the fate of Brigitte's uncle, Herman Friedmann, click here.

In this lesson, you examine the works of Felix Nussbaum. For more information about Nussbaum and his work, click here.

Additional information regarding the Nuremberg Trials:


Additional information regarding other post - war trials:

Additional information on other topics:


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Echoes and Reflections - A Multimedia Curriculum on the Holocaust