The International School for Holocaust Studies
Echoes and Reflections
Perpetrators, Collaborators and Bystanders
In this lesson, you examine the complex issues of justice, guilt, and responsibility within the context of the Holocaust. You also learn about war crimes trials following World War II and consider the responsibility of the free world to provide a safe haven for refugees attempting to escape from Nazi Europe. Below you will find additional information on many of the topics you study in this lesson.
In this lesson, you meet Jan Karski. For more information about him, click here.
In this lesson, you meet Regina Zielinski. To learn about the fate of Regina's family during the Holocaust, click on the pages of testimony identified with
In this lesson, you meet Brigitte Altman. To learn about the fate of Brigitte's uncle, Herman Friedmann, click here.
In this lesson, you examine the works of Felix Nussbaum. For more information about Nussbaum and his work, click here.
Additional information regarding the Nuremberg Trials:
- Albert Speer
- Alfred Jodl
- Alfred Rosenberg
- Arthur Seyss Inquart
- Ernst Kaltenbrunner
- Hans Frank
- Hermann Goering
- Hjalmar Shacht
- I.G. Farben
- Joachim von Ribbentrop
- Julius Streicher
- Karl Doenitz
- Neurath, Konstantin Freiherr Von
- Nuremberg Trials
- Rudolph Hess
- Wilhelm Frick
- Wilhelm Keitel
Additional information regarding other post - war trials:
- Adolf Eichmann Trial in 1961
- John Demjanjuk Trial in 1987
- Nuremberg Trials (photograph)
- Office of Special Investigations
- United States War Crimes Commission
Additional information on other topics:
- Auschwitz, Bombing of
- Holocaust Denial
- The Middle East Conflict, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust
- United States of America
- War Refugee Board
- What is Holocaust Denial?
- Why Didn’t the Allies Bomb Auschwitz?
Educational Resources for Teachers
- Reactions of the Allies - Excerpt from an Interview with Yehuda Bauer (research)
- “The (Non-)Bombing of Auschwitz-Birkenau” – Excerpt from an Interview with Prof. David Bankier (research)
- How was it Humanly Possible: A Study of Perpetrators and Bystanders during The Holocaust (study guide)
- Nazi Europe and the Final Solution edited by David Bankier and Israel Gutman (book)
- Documents on the Holocaust (book)
- Nazi Domination in Europe (map)
Your feedback on this Echoes and Reflections section of our Web site is important to us. Send us your comments.