The International School for Holocaust Studies
Echoes and Reflections
In this lesson, you learn about the mobile killing squads, the Nazi extermination camps, and the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question.” Below you will find additional information on the material you study in this lesson.
You also meet Itka Zygmuntowicz. Learn about the fate of some of Itka's family members by clicking on the pages of testimony identified with .
In this lesson, you study a painting by Zinovii Tolkatchev. For more information about this artist and his drawings after the liberation of extermination camps in Eastern Europe, click here.
You examine a number of photographs taken at Auschwitz-Birkenau in May 1944. For more information about this photo collection and the album from where these photographs were taken, click here.
In this lesson, you meet Judith Becker. Learn about Judith's experiences in the extermination camps by reading the testimonies below:
- Judith Becker talks about arriving at Majdanek, click here
- Judith Becker talks about surviving the gas chamber, click here.
- Judith Becker talks about prohibitions in Auschwitz-Birkenau, click here.
- Judith Becker talks about survival in Plaszow, click here.
- Judith Becker talks about being tattooed in Auschwitz-Birkenau, click here.
- Judith Becker talks about obtaining shoes during a Death March, click here.
More about the"Final Solution" is available by clicking the following links:
- Community and teamwork in the camps
- Concentration Camps
- Culture, religion and education in the camps
- Extermination Camps
- The Fate of Children in the Camps
- Nazi Camps
- Resistance in the camps
- Lithuania, 1941, Transport of Jews to Their Deaths Next to the Seventh Fort
- Bochnia, Poland, An Execution by a German Police Firing Squad
- Lubny, Ukraine, October 1941, A Jewish Woman Sitting with Her Children Before Their Execution
- Berlin, The Mansion in Which the Wannsee Conference Took Place in 1942
- Siedlce, Poland, Deportation - Women and Children Boarding Train Cars
- Stropkov, Slovakia, The Findeling Family and other Jews marching toward the synagogue during the deportation, 23/05/1942
- Greece, Deportation of Jews from Northern Greece to a Concentration Camp in Poland
- Romania, German Soldiers Deporting Jews
- Deportation of Amsterdam Jews
- A Woman and Child Boarding a Deportation Train, Thrace, Greece
- Jewish Children Walking Single-File in the Street Before Their Deportation to Treblinka, Warsaw, Poland
- A Blueprint of the Treblinka Extermination Camp
- Treblinka, Poland, Smoke Rising from the Burning of Bodies in the Camp, 1943
- Treblinka, Poland, Railway Station
- Treblinka, Poland, Prisoners Undergoing Inspection by a Doctor, Near a Barrack
- Treblinka, Poland, An Execution
- Belzec, Poland, SS Guards
- Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, June 26, 1944, An Aerial Photograph of Camps I-II
- Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, May 27, 1944, Jews Standing on the Platform After Alighting from a Train
- Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, Women and Children Deemed Unfit for Work on Their Way to Gas Chamber 4
- Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, May 27, 1944, A Selection on the Platform
- Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, Jews That Were Not Able to Work, Waiting Before Their Execution in the Grove
- Extract from Written Evidence of Rudolf Hoess, Commander of the Auschwitz Extermination Camp
- The Revolt at the Sobibor Extermination Camp
- Order by Himmler on July 19, 1942, for the Completion of the "Final Solution" in the Generalgovernment
- Extract from the Commissar's Order for "Operation Barbarossa," June 6, 1941
- Extract from Guidelines by Heydrich for Higher SS and Police Leaders in the Occupied Territories of the Soviet Union, July 2, 1941
- Extracts from a Report by Einsatzgruppe A in the Baltic Countries, 1941
- Evidence of Jewish Escapees from the Ninth Fort in Kovno on the Burning of the Bodies
- From a Speech by Himmler Before Senior SS Officers in Poznan, October 4, 1943
- Hitler Bans Public Reference to the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" July 11, 1943
- A Violin Belonging to Yakov Halperin Who Played in Prisoners' Orchestras in Plaszow, Mauthausen and Melk
- A Prisoner's Wooden Clog from Majdanek, from the State Museum of Majdanek
- A Crushed Aluminium Bowl from Majdanek, from the State Museum of Majdanek
- A Zyklon B Label from Majdanek, from the State Museum of Majdanek
- The Auschwitz Album
- "Private Tolkatchev at the Gates of Hell": Majdanek and Auschwitz Liberated - Testimony of an Artist
- The "Final Solution"
Diaries and Letters
- Chelmno, Poland, From the Will of Shmuel Srebnik
- Two Prisoners’ Testimonies from Chelmno, Poland
- From the Memoirs of Holocaust Survivor Edi Weinstein on Staying Alive in Treblinka by Sorting Clothes
Educational Resources for Teachers
- More information about survival in the camps:
- Women in Auschwitz (ceremony)
- Auschwitz: The Final Stop (ceremony)
- I Never Even Lived (book)
- The "Final Solution", Bureaucratic Process or an Ideological Genocide? – Interview with Prof. Yehuda Bauer
- The Transport - "How was it Humanly Possible?" (lesson plan)
- The Auschwitz Album (book)
- Last Letters from the Shoah (book)
- Nazi Europe and the Final Solution edited by David Bankier and Israel Gutman (book)
- The Origins of the Final Solution (book)
- Nazi Domination in Europe (map)
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