The International School for Holocaust Studies
Echoes and Reflections
In this lesson, you learn about the ghettos established throughout Nazi Europe and study primary sources from the Lodz ghetto in Poland.
For more information about the Lodz ghetto, as well as other ghettos established during the Holocaust, click here.
In this lesson, you meet Joseph Morton. Here is a Page of Testimony about Zisle Mortkowitz, Joseph’s mother.
- Biebow, Hans
- Bohemia and Moravia, Protectorate of
- Extermination Camp
- The "Final Solution"
- Forced Labor
- Rumkowski, Mordechai Chaim
- Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Entrance to the Ghetto
- Checiny, Poland, Abraham Ring with Members of the Judenrat in the Ghetto
- Kovno, Lithuania, Dr. Elchanan Elkes, Head of the Judenrat, in His Office
- Kovno, Lithuania - Children on the Street in the Ghetto
- Krakow, Poland, On the Bridge Leading to the Ghetto
- Lodz, Poland, Policemen in the Ghetto
- Lodz, Poland, Rumkowski Blessing a Bride and Groom
- Lodz, Poland, Street Scene in the Ghetto
- Lodz, Poland, Awaiting Deportation
- Lodz, Poland, 1941, Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski with Graduates from the Gymnasium (high school)
- Lodz, Poland, Jews on the bridge, above Zgierska St., which connected the two parts of the ghetto, February 1941.
- Lublin, Poland, Deportation of Jews to the Ghetto
- Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, Children Donning the Jewish Badge
- Children in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
- Men Playing Chess in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
- Vilna,Lithuania, Members of the Judenrat
- Warsaw Ghetto, Poland, September 19, 1941, Two Starving Women on a Rickshaw
- Warsaw, Poland, Building the Ghetto Wall
- Warsaw, Poland - Children Sitting on the Pavement Soliciting Alms
- Warsaw, Poland, September 19, 1941, A Woman Selling Armbands in the Ghetto
- Warsaw, Poland, A Sign Reading: "Typhus - Entrance and Exit Forbidden"
- Warsaw, Poland, Food Distribution
- Warsaw, Poland, Jews Being Transported in Trucks to Forced Labor Outside the Ghetto
- An American Newspaper Announces the Establishment of the Warsaw Ghetto, December 17, 1940
- Adam Czerniakow, Head of the Warsaw Ghetto
- The Ghetto Jews as Labor Force – A Report by Hans Biebow
- Prayer Recited in One of the Lodz Ghetto Synagogues
- The Deterioration of the Physical Condition of the Ghetto Jews
- Address by Rumkowski to the Officials of the Judenrat in Lodz
- Rumkowski's Address at the Time of the Deportation of the Children from the Lodz Ghetto, September 4, 1942
- Notes by a Jewish Observer in the Lodz Ghetto Following the Deportation of the Children
- Letter from Arthur Greiser, Gauleiter and Governor of the Wartheland, to Oswald Pohl, Concerning the Fate of the Lodz Ghetto, February 14, 1944
- Report by Freidrich Uebelhoer on the Establishment of the Ghetto in Lodz, Poland, December 10, 1939
- From the Diary of Josef Zelkowicz on Rumkowski’s Response to the Carpenters Strike in the Lodz Ghetto
- A Poster Protesting Rumkowski’s Policy Toward Hard Laborers in the Lodz Ghetto
- The Last Flamenco - Dances Beyond the Walls of the Theresienstadt Ghetto
- Monopoly Board Game from Theresienstadt
- Moon Landscape - Painting by Petr Ginz Taken to Space by the Late Astronaut Ilan Ramon
- “I Completely Forgot That I Was Hungry”: Youth Groups in the Lodz Ghetto
- Photographs from the Warsaw Ghetto
- Bar Mitzvah in Theresienstadt
- "No Child’s Play"
- Between Walls and Fences
- Pavel Fantl - Art in Theresienstadt
- Compassion within the Ghetto Walls (lesson plan)
- Everyday Life in the Warsaw Ghetto (study guide)
- Holocaust Responsa in the Kovno Ghetto (study guide)
- The Legend of the Lodz Ghetto Children (study guide)
- Double Signature: Portraits of Personalities from the Terezin Ghetto Max Placek (catalogue)
- The Last Ghetto: Life in the Lodz Ghetto (catalogue)
- Online Course: Jewish Life in the Ghettos (online course)
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