The International School for Holocaust Studies
Echoes and Reflections
In this lesson, you learn about the origins of antisemitism, the place of antisemitism in Nazi ideology, and its similarities and differences to classic and modern antisemitism. You also learn about pre-war Jewish life in Germany and how the Nazi government used propaganda to exploit antisemitic attitudes among the German people and to create an atmosphere of terror.
In this lesson, you meet Esther Clifford. Learn about the fate of some members of Esther's family during the Holocaust by clicking on the pages of testimony identified with .
In this lesson, you meet Judith Becker. Learn more about Judith's experience living in Germany in the 1930s by reading the testimonies below:
- Judith Becker talks about racism lessons in German schools.
- Judith Becker talks about children of mixed marriages in Germany.
- An Antisemitic Propaganda Poster from France
- A Caricature Entitled: "Departure of the Jews from Germany"
- A French 1921 Edition of the Protocols of The Elders of Zion, the Title Reads: "The Jewish Danger".
- Vienna, Austria, 1938, An Exhibition Titled: The Eternal Jew
- Koeln, Germany, 1934, Germans Dressed as Jews at an Antisemitic Exhibit in a Carnival
- Cologne, Germany, 1933, SA Men Forcing Jews to March Wearing Antisemitic Signboards
- Germany, A Sign that Reads: "The Jews Are Unwelcome Visitors"
- Germany, Sign at a Village Entrance : "Jews Who Enter Do So at Their Own Risk"
- Germany, A Sign at the Entrance to a Village Reading: "The Locals Don't Want Any Contact with Jews".
- Antisemitic Caricature, Caption: He Was Very Friendly. But I Immediately Realized That "He Was a Jew".
- Antisemitic Caricature, Caption: "We Don't Care About Germany, We Only Care That We're Well Off"
- An Antisemitic Caricature Depicting a Jew (Rothschild) Taking Over the World
- An Antisemitic Caricature Entitled: "Pickled Pork"
- Germany, A Chart Portraying the Definition of a Jew According to the Nuremberg Laws
- A Racial Chart Taken from a Nazi Propaganda Booklet: Who Has German Blood? "Who Belongs to the Jewish Race? Who is of Mixed Race?"
- Anti-Jewish Plans of the Nazis, Published in a German Newspaper before 1933
- Extracts from Mein Kampf, 1924, by Adolf Hitler
- A Page from a Children's Antisemitic Booklet Called "Beware of the Fox"
- An Antisemitic Booklet Called "Der Untermensch" Published in Berlin, 1935
- Game Pieces from an Antisemitic Game Called “Jews Out”
- A Tool Used for Measuring the Bridge of the Nose for Racial Purposes
Educational Resources for Teachers
- “Probing the Depths of German Antisemitism”, Edited by David Bankier (book)
- The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life - Before and During the Holocaust (book)
- Classroom Activity on Antisemitism (from Yad Vashem’s ceremonies web site)
- Suggested Workshop on Antisemitism Using Statements (from Yad Vashem’s ceremonies web site)
- “Auschwitz: The Final Stop” (ceremony)
- Outcast (study guide)
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