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The International Institute for Holocaust Research

Yad Vashem Studies

House Style

Use The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition as a general guide.

  • Spelling. United States spelling and punctuation should be used throughout.
  • Numbers should be spelled out from one to ninety-nine then given as numerals.
  • Subheadings should be clearly shown in bold and upper and lower case. Sub-subheads should be in italics and upper and lower case.
  • Concepts and terms in foreign languages should be in italics (e.g., Gleichschaltung), except if concept or term is well known and accepted in English (e.g., Blitzkrieg). SS and SA ranks and titles should be in German in italics (e.g., SS-Sturmbannführer). Accents and diacritics should be provided for all foreign words.
  • Names of organizations in foreign languages will be given in Roman (e.g., Reichsvertretung). German and other military ranks will be in English, in Roman. 
  • Place names. Use prewar names as default. If there is a commonly used English name: Lodz (Łódź); Vilna (Wilno; Vilnius). Subsequent references should be in English. If no common English name: Biłgoraj; Mönchengladbach; Ardèche.
  • Names of persons should be given in full in the first reference (first and family names). It is incumbent upon the authors to provide this information.
  • First lines of paragraphs, except following lines of subheadings, should be indented.


  1. Notes should be embedded when using Word or a compatible word processor. Here are a few examples of our house style:
    1. Books: Israel Gutman, The Jews of Warsaw, 1939-1943 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983), pp. 120-123.
    2. Article in book: Mikko Majander, “Pitkä parlamentti 1939–1945,” in Vesa Vares, Mikko Uola, and Mikko Majander, eds., Kansanvalta koetuksella: Suomen eduskunta 100 vuotta (Helsinki: Edita, 2006), pp. 292–293.
    3. Article in journal: Yeshayahu A. Jelinek, “Purchasing Mission and Israel Economy,” Journal of Israel History, vol. 18, no. 2–3 (1977), pp. 191–209.
    4. Books in foreign languages: Ewa Kurek-Lesik, Gdy Klasztor znaczyć życie (Warsaw: Znak, 1992), pp. 49-54; if non-Latin alphabet - Emanuel Ringelblum, Last Writings; Polish-Jewish Relations, January 1943-April 1944 (Hebrew) (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1994), pp. 245-246.
    5. Citing of archives: Testimony of Haim Schwartz, Yad Vashem Archives (YVA), O.3/46585; Letter from Himmler to Heydrich, April 3, 1942, YVA, O.41/4325.
  2. Subsequent references should use author’s or editor’s last name, and a shortened title (do not use hereafter). For example, Gutman, Jews of Warsaw, p. 150.
  3. Dates should be written out in full in US style – April 3, 1942.
  4. When the same work is cited in consecutive references, use ibid., or in the case of the same author with a different source, use idem.

Guidelines for Preparing a Review Article

  1. Content

    The review should
    • provide a fair description of the book’s content and main theses
    • address the book’s structure, style, and sources
    • examine the research methodology
    • note new findings in the book and discuss the extent of its contribution to the subject
    • provide an overall assessment of the book

  2. Length

    Yad Vashem Studies publishes review articles, ranging generally from 2,500-6,500 words.

  3. Submission

    • Reviewers are requested to submit the review article within three months of receiving the book.
    • Review articles should be submitted in duplicate copies, in addition to a disk in Word, or else they can be sent as an email attachment to or

  4. Acceptance

    Reviews, like other articles, must pass peer review in order to be accepted for publication.

  5. Style

    Reviewers should follow Yad Vashem’s house style for articles.

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